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By Marcus Tullius Cicero

Cicero's Topica is among the canonical texts on historical rhetorical conception. this can be the 1st full-scale observation in this paintings, and the 1st serious variation of the paintings that's trained by means of a whole research of its transmission.

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So as of prevalence as element of reference. fifty two advent Ta b le 2. comparability among the lists of t opoi within the Anonynus Seguerianus. and Cicero Anonymus Seguerianus Cicero, Topica §169 Definition of the t opoB §172 ‘OoB (a) o‘ l oKlZoB o‘ o‘ oB (b) t a ’ n tÞ! & o‘ Þ! g noB # < idoB > i’ dion (? ) Cf. §§7 ff. with remark. §§26–34 §9 definitio diaoa (c) ta paaKimna au’ tÞ! & ’ tumologia numon pa! ’ piton u‘ poKoistiK on §173 diaisiB (a) KataimZsiB (b) mism oB (c) i’ diKZ diaisiB §174 paasiB Kata t o m &allon, Kata t o ‘& Ztton, Kata t o i’ son §175 sustoiwia §176 piowZ ‘ m (a) a‘ ! B Z pi wtai ‘ Kata dunamin pi (b) a‘ ! B wtai §177 o‘ d  ’ okay t! n & o‘ moi! n t opoB otZta (a) Kata tZn poi (b) Kata tZn a’ nalogian §178 t o pap omnon p o to &u pagmatoB, ’ n tÞ! & p agmati, mta t o p &agma §179 mawZ (a) a’ ntiKimna (contradictories) (b) ’ nantia stZtiKa (e. g. t wnZ a’ twnia) ou’ stZtiKa (e. g. a’ ga on KaK on) §180 dunamiB (eight varieties) §180 KisiB ! n, a’ p a’ p o ! n, & a’ p o Z‘ ! o sugga ! n, a’ p o ilos o! n, a’ p o poiZt! n & §13 a genere, §§39–40 §14 a forma generis (§29 . . . usque eo persequi dum proprium efficiatur) §16 a differentia §§10, 35–7 notatio — — — §10 partium enumeratio §§28, 33–4 partitio §§28, 33–4 divisio §23 ex comparatione, §§68–1 §23 in maiore, in minore, in re pari §12 coniugatio (suzugia), §38 — §15 a similitudine, §§41–5 §18 Ab adiunctis §§50–2 ante rem, cum re, submit rem §17 ex contrario, §§47–9 (See the remark) — §24 ex auctoritate, §§72–8 (§78 et oratores et philosophos et poetas et historicos) 4 The felony point of the Topica within the moment and primary century b c , Roman criminal technological know-how got here into being. basic reforms within the criminal strategy have been by means of adjustments in criminal method, conceptualization, and within the association of criminal information. those adjustments were characterised as a revolution. The Topica was once sincerely conceived below the influence of those advancements and needs to be learn within the gentle of them. there's want for contextualization on one other point too. In his de Oratore, Cicero proposes a reform of the ius civile in his day from the point of view of the orator/advocate, and one must be sure how some distance the Topica are a contribution to this better programme. R OM AN L EG A L S C I E NC E The ancestors of the Roman jurists have been one workforce of country clergymen, the pontifices. 1 because the identify exhibits, they have been initially eager about the rites in terms of the divine powers one encounters whilst construction bridges in an strange and unexplored quarter. Their sector of accountability ranged, except the career to which they owe their identify, from the ‘exchange’ with the river-god Tiberis, the deal with the calendar and the Annales,2 to criminal suggestion with admire to sacral and different legislations (which have been initially no longer truly distinguished). 1 See Latte (1960), 195–212, 400–1, Wieacker (1986), Watson (1992).

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