By Ibn Warraq
For an individual with an curiosity within the early heritage of Islam, this erudite anthology will end up to be informative and enlightening.
Scholars have lengthy identified that the textual content of the Koran indicates facts of many impacts from spiritual assets open air Islam. for instance, tales within the Koran approximately Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and different characters from the Bible evidently come from the Jewish Torah and the Christian Gospels. yet there's additionally facts of borrowing within the Koran from extra imprecise literature.
In this anthology, the acclaimed critic of Islam Ibn Warraq has assembled scholarly articles that delve into those strange, little-known resources. The individuals study the connections among pre-Islamic poetry and the textual content of the Koran; and so they discover similarities among numerous Muslim doctrines and concepts present in the writings of the Ebionites, a Jewish Christian sect that existed from the second one to the fourth centuries. additionally thought of is the effect of Coptic Christian literature at the writing of the conventional biography of Muhammad.
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Additional info for Koranic Allusions: The Biblical, Qumranian, and Pre-Islamic Background to the Koran
Harrassowitz, 1898; additionally Barhebraeus / Giuseppe A. Assemani, (Nomocanon) Ecclesiae Antiochenae Syrorum nomocanon, 1838]; G. Hoffmann, Auszüge, p. one hundred twenty five. [G. Hoffmann, Auszüge syrischen Akten persischer Märtyrer, Leipzig, 1880]; Braun, Synhados sixty seven and Or. Ltz. 1903, col. 337 [Oscar Braun, ed. , Das Buch der Synhados oder Synodicon orientale, Die Sammlung der nestorianischen Konzilien, zusammengestellt im nine. Jahrh. Nach der Syrischen Handschrift, Museo Borgiano eighty two der Vatikanischen Bibliothek. Übersetzt und erläutert von Oscar Braun, Stuttgart-Wien, 1900]. 28. I. ağar 1, 263, cf. three, 437. I. Kair 287 r. 29. I. Kair 288 r. (az Zuhrī). 30. wa-’alqā ’ilayhi maqālîda hāā ’amri [he despatched him the keys to the problem; cf. R. Dozy, Supplément aux dictinnaires arabes, 2 vols. , Leiden, 1881; s. v. miqlād]. 31. it seems that he additionally incited the Qu'rayshites to revenge: Aġ. three, 187, cf. most sensible p. seventy three, A. four. 32. in line with one legend, whereas carousing at Ghailān fortress (Aġ, and so forth. ). 33. In I Kair 289 r. 34. See Sprenger 1, 162 et seq. 35. Aġ. three, 188, a hundred ninety. I. Kair 287 r. Like Muammad's commencing of the center, U. ’s exploration is fastened, regularly, in part at some degree in his adolescence (Balawī 2, 508), partially later, (usually) ahead of his demise. In one other severe research, U. gets the foundation during this means (Goldziher, Abhandlungen zur arabischen Philologie, Leiden, 1896, 1, 213, cf. Damirī 2, 210 below). 36. Damirī l. c. Nawawī, p. 164. 37. Aġ. three, 187. 38. We should also be cautious of mix-ups. there have been numerous poets referred to as Umayya (cf. Khiz. 1, 122). He has even been burdened with U. b. Abi--alt al Maghribī, much more usually with the Huailite. 39. [It is worthy enumerating the Arabic metres right here as Schulthess refers to them at quite a few issues during the article. There are in general taken to be 16 metres: 1. rajaz, 2. sarī‘, three. kāmil, four. wāfir are the 4 iambic metres. there's one antipastic metre, particularly five. hazaj. The amphibrachic are 3 in quantity: 6. mutqārib; 7. awīl; eight. muāri‘. The anapaestic metres are 4 in quantity: nine. mutadārik; 10. basī; eleven munasari; 12 muqtaab. The ionic metres also are 4 in quantity: thirteen. ramal; 14. madīd; 15. khafīf; sixteen. mujta. resource: W. Wright, A Grammar of the Arabic Language, Camridge college Press, third ed. , 1967, vol. 2, pp. 358ff. ] forty. [I. Qutayba, Liber poësis et poëtarum, ed. M. J. de Goeje, Leiden, 1904. forty-one. The Wāfir poem within the Ğamhara isn't really real, as lately confirmed by way of my colleague who simply marked his anniversary (Fünf Mo. all. 1, 19 et seq. [T. Nöldeke, “Fünf Mo‘allaqät, übersetzt und erklärt,” SKAW, Vienna, 1899, 1900, 1901]). forty two. [Abu Bakr ibn al-Anbāri, Kitāb al-Addād, ed. T. Houtsma, Leiden, 1881. ] forty three. [F. Wüstenfeld, “Die Wohnsitze und Wanderungen der Arabischen Stämme,” in Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Göttingen, 1872. ] forty four. [Hamasae carmina cum Tebrisii scholiis integris edidit, indicibus instruxit, versione latina et commentario illustr. , G. G. Freytag, 2 vols. , Bonn, 1828–1847 (collected through Abū Tammām, died 231 AH/845 CE; remark through at-Tabrīzī, died 502 AH/1108 CE. different variants: Būlāq, 1296; Cairo, 1322, 1325, 1331.