By Kurt W. Beyer
This MIT Press BIT is excerpted from the 2009 MIT Press publication Grace Hopper and the discovery of the knowledge Age by Kurt W. Beyer.
The profession of machine visionary Grace Murray Hopper paralleled the meteoric trajectory of the postwar machine undefined. This BIT describes the parable of "amazing Grace" and tells how she turned "the 3rd programmer of the world's first computer."
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Additional resources for The Myth of Grace: A BIT of Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age (MIT Press BITS)
Wexelblat (ACM Press, 1981), xvii–xx. sixteen. A discovering reduction for the pc Oral background assortment is offered at http://invention. smithsonian. org. 17. See Francis Trevelyan Miller, Thomas A. Edison, Benefactor of Mankind: The Romantic existence tale of the World’s maximum Inventor (John Winston, 1931); Mervyn Kaufman, Thomas Alva Edison, Miracle Maker (Garrad, 1962); H. Gordon Garbedian, Thomas Alva Edison, Builder of Civilization (J. Messner, 1947); John McMahon, The Wright Brothers: Fathers of Flight (Little, Brown, 1930). 18. Hugh G. J. Aitken, Syntony and Spark: The Origins of the Radio (Wiley, 1976, 1985); Thomas P. Hughes, Networks of energy: Electrification in Western Society, 1880–1930 (Johns Hopkins collage Press, 1983). 19. between them have been David Nye’s Electrifying the US: Social Meanings of a brand new expertise, 1880–1940 (MIT Press, 1990), Claude Fischer’s the US Calling: A Social heritage of the phone to 1940 (University of California Press, 1992), John Law’s “The Olympus 320 Engine: A Case examine in layout, improvement, and Organizational Control,” know-how and tradition 33 (1992), 409–440, and Gabrielle Hecht’s “Political Designs: Nuclear Reactors and nationwide coverage in Postwar France,” expertise and tradition 35 (1994), 657–685. 20. David Nye, The Invented Self: An Anti-Biography, from records of Thomas A. Edison (Odense college Press, 1983). 21. Donald Reid, Paris Sewers and Sewermen (Harvard collage Press, 1991). 22. For extra on Grace Hopper’s army profession from 1967 to 1985, see Kathleen Broome Williams, Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea (Naval Institute Press, 2004). Kathy and that i labored heavily over the years, sharing assets and insights as we exposed the tale of this extraordinary lady, and i'm proud of how we divided the ancient terrain. NOTES TO bankruptcy 2 1. Grace Hopper, interview through Uta Merzbach, 15 July 1968 (COH-SI), 24. 2. Murray, ladies changing into Mathematicians, 1–17. three. Hopper, interview, 15 July 1968 (COH-SI), 7–8. four. Murray, girls turning into Mathematicians, 110–111. five. Ibid. , five, 111. based on information amassed by way of the mathematician Margaret Murray, in basic terms 15. 7% of the doctoral levels offered in arithmetic among 1930 and 1934 went to girls. extra troubling, the share of girls receiving doctorates in arithmetic lowered for the following 60 years, now not achieving 1934 degrees until eventually 1989 (16. 7%). 6. Williams, Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea, 11–12. Williams shared info through e mail of her dialog with Grace Hopper’s sister, Mary Murray Westcote, earlier than Westcote’s passing. 7. Hopper, interview, 15 July 1968 (COH-SI), 23. eight. Ibid, sixteen. nine. Ibid. , 18–19. 10. Ibid. , 19–20. eleven. Murray, ladies changing into Mathematicians, a hundred. 12. Hopper, interview, 15 July 1968 (COH-SI), 21. thirteen. Ibid. , 21–22. 14. Constance Reid, Courant in Göttingen and long island: the tale of an unbelievable Mathematician (Springer-Verlag, 1976); Alan D. Beyerchen, Scientists below Hitler: Politics and the Physics group within the 3rd Reich (Yale college Press, 1977). in the course of the past due Thirties, Courant additionally helped different mathematicians who have been fleeing Nazi Germany to acquire positions within the usa.