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By Anonymous

Discovered this booklet at the present time. It's no longer precisely freely to be had if few humans find out about it. I've begun analyzing it, it appears to be like outstanding. Here's the ToC, they inform much concerning the book:

I cleansing your self Up 7
1 Grooming 7
1.1 Showering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Shaving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3 Brushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4 the fewer common issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 Dressing 11
2.1 The Very fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2 Your sort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3 buying principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.4 buying garments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.5 donning garments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.5.1 matches one zero one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.5.2 the place and while to put on a go well with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.6 Misc information and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.7 Clothiers - shop manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3 workout 22
3.1 Muscle Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.2 Stamina and effort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.3 Weight and total wellbeing and fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4 Manners 27
4.1 The stroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2 status in line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.3 speaking with Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.4 consuming at a cafe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.5 on the Theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5 consuming 30
5.1 weight loss plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.2 What To Eat.. And What to not devour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3 effortless enjoyable how one can diminish at the kilos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.4 Moderation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
II Getting Cultured 35
6 tradition 35
6.1 constructing broader pursuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6.2 Why hassle? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.3 every thing is tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7 Books 38
7.1 Hook me the fuck up, document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8 Drawing 41
8.1 Getting begun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.2 really drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.3 Scanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.4 Inking and coloring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3
9 Cooking 43
9.1 What you wish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.2 attending to it: Protips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9.3 events in case you needs to cook dinner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9.4 environment a desk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
9.5 Wine, serving and tasting thereof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10 ingesting 46
10.1 organic elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
10.2 DUDE, shall we GET WASTED!11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
10.3 Alcoholic nameless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
10.3.1 normal stu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
10.3.2 The equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
10.3.3 Glassware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
10.3.4 Protips for the host or bartender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
10.3.5 Protips for site visitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11 Writing 51
11.1 What makes a narrative solid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.2 suggestion on writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.3 Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
11.4 Getting released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
12 song 53
12.1 Punk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
12.2 Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
12.2.1 vintage Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
12.2.2 glossy Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
12.3 steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
12.4 Electronica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
12.5 Classical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
13 wonderful Cinema 60
14 steer clear of just like the Fucking Plague 62
14.1 undesirable conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
14.2 Don't enable those statements get away your mouth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
III paintings and Play 63
15 Coworkers & neighbors 63
15.1 Interacting with coworkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
15.2 Making associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
15.3 conserving friendships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
15.4 no longer being abused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
16 highschool and school 65
16.1 highschool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
16.2 College/university front checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
16.3 Tertiary schooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
16.3.1 university . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
16.3.2 college . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
16.3.3 women in MY college? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4
17 Finance 70
17.1 LESSON 1: Budgeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
17.1.1 KEYS TO BUDGETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
17.2 LESSON 2: Banking associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
17.3 LESSON three: Saving Up For Stu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
17.4 LESSON four: shares, Bonds, Mutual money and Hedge cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
17.5 LESSON five: How to not Be A Fucking fool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
18 your personal position 73
18.1 preparing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
18.2 relocating In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
18.3 dwelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
18.4 acquaintances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
19 Tinkering 76
19.1 the fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
19.2 fabrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
19.3 uncomplicated operating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
19.4 cleansing up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
20 Miscellaneous 80
IV intercourse and Relationships 81
21 women 81
21.1 easy methods to Behave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
21.2 cross forward, /b/ smug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
21.3 She is often coming to you. by no means the opposite direction round. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
21.3.1 issues to be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
21.3.2 issues to completely by no means do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
21.4 Be Romantic (not a dipshit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
21.5 Going out on a date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
21.6 Being greater than only a pal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
21.7 forms to stick The Fuck clear of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
21.8 A girl's tainted standpoint in accordance with her terrible adventure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
22 men 88
22.1 First, The actual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
22.1.1 psychological elements Of courting, For woman Anons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
22.2 On workout and dealing Out, Extending Into eating regimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
22.2.1 courting A Male /B/tard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
23 Seduction 91
23.1 what's Seduction? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
23.1.1 ancient Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
23.1.2 The brain on the Root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
23.2 Key issues that flip ladies On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
23.3 Seduction suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
23.3.1 taking part in an element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
23.3.2 varieties to prevent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
23.3.3 Being Self-Condent, no longer an conceited Asshole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
23.3.4 Flashing the masculinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
23.3.5 Flash your wit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
23.3.6 Flashing the help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
23.4 The Social Ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5
23.5 Sticky occasions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
23.5.1 Stalkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
23.5.2 Crazies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
23.5.3 Hardasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
23.5.4 mom Hens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
23.6 if you totally fuck up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
24 intercourse 97
24.1 Foreplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
24.1.1 innovations and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
24.2 intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
24.2.1 Positions and methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
24.2.2 counsel and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
24.3 different types of intercourse acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
24.4 Sexual matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
24.4.1 holding it up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
24.4.2 Getting o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
24.4.3 Penis measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
25 dialog 107
25.1 For men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
25.1.1 variety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
25.1.2 Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
25.1.3 issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
25.1.4 utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
25.2 for women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
25.2.1 variety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
25.2.2 Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
25.2.3 subject matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

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T✉r❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ❖❝t♦❜❡r ✶✷✱ ✷✵✵✼ ❚❤❡ ❲❡❧❧ ❈✉❧t✉r❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ✐s ❛ ❝♦❧❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❡ ♣r♦❥❡❝t ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ ✴❜✴t❛r❞s t♦ ♠❛❦❡ t❤❡ ❜✐❣❣❡st ❝♦♠♣✐❧❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ s❡❧❢ ❤❡❧♣ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ t❤❛t ❡✈❡r ❤✐t ✴❜✴✳ ❋r♦♠ ❛❞✈✐❝❡ ♦♥ ●✐r❧s t♦ ❛❞✈✐❝❡ ♦♥ ❈❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ✐t ✐s tr✉❧② ❛♥ ❡①❛♠♣❧❡ ♦❢ ❤♦✇ ✶ s♠❛rt ❆♥♦♥ ✐s✳ ✶ ❊✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ r❡❛❞ ❤❡r❡ ✇❛s st♦❧❡♥ ❢r♦♠ ❲✐❦✐❝❤❛♥✳♦r❣ ❜② t❤❡ ❜✉tt♦♥s ✬❈tr❧✬✱ ✬❈✬ ❛♥❞ ✬❱✬✳ ■ ❥✉st ❝♦♠♣✐❧❡❞ t❤❡ t❡①t ✐♥t♦ t❤✐s ♣✐❝t✉r❡✱ ♠❛②❜❡ ❤❛♣♣❡♥❡❞ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ❛♥❞ ■ ❞✐❞♥✬t ❧✉r❦ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ❜✉t ❤❡r❡ ✐t ✐s✱ ■ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ❚❤❡ ❲❡❧❧ ❈✉❧t✉r❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s✳ ✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ❨♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ s❡❡♥ t❤❡♠ ❡✈❡r②✇❤❡r❡ ✲ s❡❧❢ ❤❡❧♣ t♦♣✐❝s ♦❢ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ❜❡❣❣✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❤❡❧♣ ✇✐t❤ ❤✐s ❧✐❢❡✳ ❙♦♠❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❤❛✈❡ ♥♦ ✐❞❡❛ ❤♦✇ t❤❡② s❤♦✉❧❞ ❞r❡ss ♦t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛ P❛♥t❡r❛ t✲s❤✐rt ✇✐t❤ ❥❡❛♥s t❤❛t t❤❡✐r ♠♦t❤❡r ❜♦✉❣❤t ❢♦r t❤❡♠ ✜✈❡ ②❡❛rs ❛❣♦✳ ❙♦♠❡ ❤❛✈❡ ♥♦ ✐❞❡❛ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤ ✇♦♠❡♥ ❛♥❞ s♣❡♥❞ t❤❡✐r t✐♠❡ ♠❛st✉r❜❛t✐♥❣ t♦ ❧♦❧✐✳ ❆♥❞ s♦♠❡ ❥✉st ✇❛♥t t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ✐❢ t❤❡② s❤♦✉❧❞ s❤❛✈❡ t❤❡✐r ♣✉❜❡s✳ ❍❡r❡✱ ♠② ❢r✐❡♥❞s✱ ✐s ②♦✉r ❛♥s✇❡r✳ ❲r✐tt❡♥ ❜② ❛♥♦♥✱ ❡❞✐t❡❞ ❜② ❛♥♦♥✱ ❛♥❞ ♣❡r❢❡❝t❡❞ ❜② ❛♥♦♥✳ ❊✈❡r② s✐♥❣❧❡ t✐♣✱ tr✐❝❦✱ ❛♥❞ ❜❛rr❡❧ r♦❧❧ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❡✈❡r ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❤❛✈✐♥❣ t♦ ❛s❦ ❢♦r ❤❡❀❧♣✳ ❚❤❡ ✜rst ❝❤❛♣t❡rs ♦❢ t❤✐s ❲✐❦✐❜♦♦❦ ✇✐❧❧ ✐♥t❡♥❞ t♦ ❡♥❧✐❣❤t❡♥ ❛♥❞ r❡❢r❡s❤ ②♦✉r ♠❡♠♦r② ♦♥ t❤❡ ❜❛s✐❝s ✲ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❞❡❝❡♥t✱ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ✐♥ s❤❛♣❡✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❛t ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ t❤✐♥❣✳ ❚❤❡♥✱ ✐t ✇✐❧❧ s❡❣✉❡ ✐♥t♦ ♦t❤❡r ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✲ ❤♦✇ t♦ ♣✐❝❦ ✉♣ ✇♦♠❡♥✱ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❤❛♥❞❧❡ ♦t❤❡r ♣❡♦♣❧❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❞✐♥♥❡r ♣❛rt② ✇❤❡r❡ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t t❤r♦✇ ❢♦♦❞✳ ❚❤❡♥✱ t❤❡ ♠✐s❝❡❧❧❛♥❡♦✉s t❤✐♥❣s ✲ ❝♦❧❧❡❣❡ ♣r♦t✐♣s ❛♥❞ tr✐❝❦s✱ ❛♥❞ ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❡❧s❡ ②♦✉ ❝♦✉❧❞ ❡✈❡r ✇❛♥t t♦ ❦♥♦✇✳ ❘❡❛❞ ❛✇❛②✳ ❊❞✐t ❛✇❛②✳ ▲❡❛r♥✱ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s✳ ❆s ♣r♦♦❢ t❤❛t ✇♦♠❡♥ ❛r❡✱ ✐♥❞❡❡❞✱ ♦♥ t❤❡ ■♥t❡r♥❡ts ✐s ♦♥ t❤❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡✱ r❡q✉❡sts ❛♥❞ ❡❞✐ts ♠❛② s♦♦♥ ❜❡ ♠❛❞❡ ❢♦r ❛ ✇♦♠❡♥✬s ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❣✉✐❞❡✳ ❆s ✇❡❧❧✱ t❤❡ ✧❯♥❝✉❧t✉r❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s✧ ♠❛② ❝♦♠❡ s♦♦♥ ❛s ❛♥ ❛❧t❡r ❡❣♦ ❣✉✐❞❡ ❢♦r t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r ♠♦r❡ ✧❢✉♥✧ ✇❛②s ♦❢ ❞♦✐♥❣ t❤✐♥❣s✳ ❉■❙❈▲❆■▼❊❘ ❲❆❘◆■◆●✿ ❚❤❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ✐♥ t❤❡s❡ ❝❤❛♣t❡rs ✐s ♥♦t t♦ ❜❡ t❛❦❡♥ ❧✐t❡r❛❧❧② ♦r ❜❡ ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ ❛♥② ✇❛② t♦ ❝♦♠♠✐t ❛♥② ✐❧❧❡❣❛❧ ❛❝ts✳ ❚❤✐s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ✐s ❢♦r ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣✉r♣♦s❡s ♦♥❧②✱ ❛♥❞ ❞♦❡s ♥♦t ✭❞✐r❡❝t❧② ♦r ✐♥❞✐r❡❝t❧②✮ s✉♣♣♦rt t❤❡ t♦♣✐❝s ❞✐s❝✉ss❡❞ t❤❡r❡♦❢✳ ❨♦✉ t❛❦❡ ❛❧❧ r❡s♣♦♥s✐❜✐❧✐t② ❢♦r ❤♦✇ ②♦✉ ✉s❡ ❛♥② ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ❝❤❛♣t❡rs✱ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ✇❤❛t✳✷ ✷ ❉✐sr❡❣❛r❞ t❤❛t✱ ■ s✉❝❦ ❝♦❝❦s✳ ✷ ❈♦♥t❡♥ts ■ ❈❧❡❛♥✐♥❣ ❨♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❯♣ ✼ ✶ ●r♦♦♠✐♥❣ ✼ ✶✳✶ ❙❤♦✇❡r✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✶✳✷ ❙❤❛✈✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✶✳✸ ❇r✉s❤✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✶✳✹ ❚❤❡ ▲❡ss ❋r❡q✉❡♥t ❚❤✐♥❣s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷ ❉r❡ss✐♥❣ ✶✶ ✷✳✶ ❚❤❡ ❱❡r② ❇❛s✐❝s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✳✷ ❨♦✉r st②❧❡ ✷✳✸ ❙❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ❢♦r ■❞❡❛s ✷✳✹ ❙❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❈❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✷✳✺ ❲❡❛r✐♥❣ ❈❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✶✶ ✶✷ ✶✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✺✳✶ ❙✉✐ts ✶✵✶ ✷✳✺✳✷ ❲❤❡r❡ ❛♥❞ ❲❤❡♥ t♦ ❲❡❛r ❛ ❙✉✐t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✻ ▼✐s❝ ❚✐♣s ❛♥❞ ❚r✐❝❦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✼ ❈❧♦t❤✐❡rs ✲ ❙t♦r❡ ❇r❛♥❞s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✸ ❊①❡r❝✐s❡ ✷✷ ✸✳✶ ▼✉s❝❧❡ ❚♦♥❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✳✷ ❙t❛♠✐♥❛ ❛♥❞ ❊♥❡r❣② ✸✳✸ ❲❡✐❣❤t ❛♥❞ ❖✈❡r❛❧❧ ❍❡❛❧t❤ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ▼❛♥♥❡rs ✷✷ ✷✸ ✷✹ ✷✼ ✹✳✶ ❚❤❡ ❲❛❧❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✳✷ ❙t❛♥❞✐♥❣ ✐♥ ❧✐♥❡ ✹✳✸ ❈♦♥✈❡rs✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ❖t❤❡rs ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✳✹ ❊❛t✐♥❣ ❛t ❛ ❘❡st❛✉r❛♥t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✹✳✺ ❆t ❚❤❡ ❚❤❡❛t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ❊❛t✐♥❣ ✷✼ ✷✼ ✷✽ ✸✵ ✺✳✶ ❉✐❡t✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✺✳✷ ❲❤❛t ❚♦ ❊❛t✳✳ ❆♥❞ ❲❤❛t ◆♦t ❚♦ ❊❛t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✺✳✸ ❊❛s② ❙tr❡ss✲❋r❡❡ ❲❛②s ❚♦ ❈✉t ❉♦✇♥ ❖♥ ❚❤❡ P♦✉♥❞s ✺✳✹ ▼♦❞❡r❛t✐♦♥ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ■■ ●❡tt✐♥❣ ❈✉❧t✉r❡❞ ✸✺ ✻ ❈✉❧t✉r❡ ✸✺ ✻✳✶ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣✐♥❣ ❜r♦❛❞❡r ✐♥t❡r❡sts ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✳✷ ❲❤② ❜♦t❤❡r❄ ✻✳✸ ❊✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❈✉❧t✉r❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✸✼ ✸✼ ✼ ❇♦♦❦s ✸✽ ✼✳✶ ✸✾ ❍♦♦❦ ♠❡ t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦ ✉♣✱ ❞♦❝ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ❉r❛✇✐♥❣ ✹✶ ✽✳✶ ●❡tt✐♥❣ st❛rt❡❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✽✳✷ ❆❝t✉❛❧❧② ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✽✳✸ ❙❝❛♥♥✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✽✳✹ ■♥❦✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❝♦❧♦r✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✸ ✾ ❈♦♦❦✐♥❣ ✹✸ ✾✳✶ ❲❤❛t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✳✷ ●❡tt✐♥❣ t♦ ✐t✿ Pr♦t✐♣s ✾✳✸ ❖❝❝❛s✐♦♥s ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ▼❯❙❚ ❝♦♦❦ ✾✳✹ ❙❡tt✐♥❣ ❛ t❛❜❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✾✳✺ ❲✐♥❡✱ s❡r✈✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ t❛st✐♥❣ t❤❡r❡♦❢ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ❉r✐♥❦✐♥❣ ✹✸ ✹✹ ✹✹ ✹✻ ✶✵✳✶ ❇✐♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ❋❛❝t♦rs ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✶✵✳✷ ❉❯❉❊✱ ▲❊❚❙ ●❊❚ ❲❆❙❚❊❉✦✶✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✶✵✳✸ ❆❧❝♦❤♦❧✐❝ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✶✵✳✸✳✶ ●❡♥❡r❛❧ st✉✛ ✶✵✳✸✳✷ ❚❤❡ ❑✐t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✶✵✳✸✳✸ ●❧❛ss✇❛r❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ✶✵✳✸✳✹ Pr♦t✐♣s ❢♦r t❤❡ ❤♦st ♦r ❜❛rt❡♥❞❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✶✵✳✸✳✺ Pr♦t✐♣s ❢♦r ❣✉❡sts ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✶✶ ❲r✐t✐♥❣ ✺✶ ✶✶✳✶ ❲❤❛t ♠❛❦❡s ❛ st♦r② ❣♦♦❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✶✶✳✷ ❆❞✈✐❝❡ ♦♥ ✇r✐t✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✶✶✳✸ ❱✐♦❧❡♥❝❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✶✶✳✹ ●❡tt✐♥❣ ♣✉❜❧✐s❤❡❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✶✷ ▼✉s✐❝ ✺✸ ✶✷✳✶ P✉♥❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✶✷✳✷ ❘♦❝❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✶✷✳✷✳✶ ❈❧❛ss✐❝ ❘♦❝❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✶✷✳✷✳✷ ▼♦❞❡r♥ ❘♦❝❦ ✶✷✳✸ ▼❡t❛❧ ✶✷✳✹ ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✶✷✳✺ ❈❧❛ss✐❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✶✸ ❋✐♥❡ ❈✐♥❡♠❛ ✻✵ ✶✹ ❆✈♦✐❞ ▲✐❦❡ ❚❤❡ ❋✉❝❦✐♥❣ P❧❛❣✉❡ ✶✹✳✶ ❇❛❞ ❍❛❜✐ts ✻✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ✶✹✳✷ ❉♦♥✬t ❧❡t t❤❡s❡ st❛t❡♠❡♥ts ❡s❝❛♣❡ ②♦✉r ♠♦✉t❤ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ■■■ ❲♦r❦ ❛♥❞ P❧❛② ✻✸ ✶✺ ❈♦✇♦r❦❡rs ✫ ❋r✐❡♥❞s ✻✸ ✶✺✳✶ ■♥t❡r❛❝t✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ❝♦✇♦r❦❡rs ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ✶✺✳✷ ▼❛❦✐♥❣ ❢r✐❡♥❞s ✻✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✳✸ ▼❛✐♥t❛✐♥✐♥❣ ❢r✐❡♥❞s❤✐♣s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ✶✺✳✹ ◆♦t ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛❜✉s❡❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ✶✻ ❍✐❣❤ ❙❝❤♦♦❧ ❛♥❞ ❈♦❧❧❡❣❡ ✶✻✳✶ ❍✐❣❤ s❝❤♦♦❧ ✻✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✳✷ ❈♦❧❧❡❣❡✴✉♥✐✈❡rs✐t② ❡♥tr❛♥❝❡ ❡①❛♠s ✻✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✶✻✳✸ ❚❡rt✐❛r② ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻ ✶✻✳✸✳✶ ❈♦❧❧❡❣❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻ ✶✻✳✸✳✷ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐t② ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼ ✶✻✳✸✳✸ ●✐r❧s ✐♥ ▼❨ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐t②❄ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾ ✹ ✶✼ ❋✐♥❛♥❝❡ ✼✵ ✶✼✳✶ ▲❊❙❙❖◆ ✶✿ ❇✉❞❣❡t✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✳✶✳✶ ❑❊❨❙ ❚❖ ❇❯❉●❊❚■◆● ✼✵ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶ ✶✼✳✷ ▲❊❙❙❖◆ ✷✿ ❇❛♥❦✐♥❣ ■♥st✐t✉t✐♦♥s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶ ✶✼✳✸ ▲❊❙❙❖◆ ✸✿ ❙❛✈✐♥❣ ❯♣ ❋♦r ❙t✉✛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷ ✶✼✳✹ ▲❊❙❙❖◆ ✹✿ ❙t♦❝❦s✱ ❇♦♥❞s✱ ▼✉t✉❛❧ ❋✉♥❞s ❛♥❞ ❍❡❞❣❡ ❋✉♥❞s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷ ✶✼✳✺ ▲❊❙❙❖◆ ✺✿ ❍♦✇ ◆♦t ❚♦ ❇❡ ❆ ❋✉❝❦✐♥❣ ■❞✐♦t ✼✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ❨♦✉r ♦✇♥ ♣❧❛❝❡ ✶✽✳✶ ●❡tt✐♥❣ ❘❡❛❞② ✼✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✸ ✶✽✳✷ ▼♦✈✐♥❣ ■♥ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✸ ✶✽✳✸ ▲✐✈✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✹ ✶✽✳✹ ◆❡✐❣❤❜♦rs ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺ ✶✾ ❚✐♥❦❡r✐♥❣ ✼✻ ✶✾✳✶ ❚❤❡ ❜❛s✐❝s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✻ ✶✾✳✷ ▼❛t❡r✐❛❧s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼ ✶✾✳✸ ❇❛s✐❝ ✇♦r❦✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼ ✶✾✳✹ ❈❧❡❛♥✐♥❣ ✉♣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾ ✷✵ ▼✐s❝❡❧❧❛♥❡♦✉s ✽✵ ■❱ ❙❡① ❛♥❞ ❘❡❧❛t✐♦♥s❤✐♣s ✽✶ ✷✶ ●✐r❧s ✽✶ ✷✶✳✶ ❍♦✇ t♦ ❇❡❤❛✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✳✷ ●♦ ❛❤❡❛❞✱ ✴❜✴ ❛rr♦❣❛♥t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✳✸ ❙❤❡ ✐s ❛❧✇❛②s ❝♦♠✐♥❣ t♦ ②♦✉✳ ◆❡✈❡r t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ✇❛② ❛r♦✉♥❞✳ ✷✶✳✸✳✶ ❚❤✐♥❣s t♦ ❜❡ ✽✶ ✽✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✷ ✷✶✳✸✳✷ ❚❤✐♥❣s t♦ ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡❧② ♥❡✈❡r ❞♦ ✷✶✳✹ ❇❡ ❘♦♠❛♥t✐❝ ✭♥♦t ❛ ❞✐♣s❤✐t✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✸ ✷✶✳✻ ❇❡✐♥❣ ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ❥✉st ❛ ❢r✐❡♥❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✹ ✷✶✳✺ ●♦✐♥❣ ♦✉t ♦♥ ❛ ❞❛t❡ ✷✶✳✼ ❚②♣❡s ❚♦ ❙t❛② ❚❤❡ ❋✉❝❦ ❆✇❛② ❋r♦♠ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✹ ✷✶✳✽ ❆ ❣✐r❧✬s t❛✐♥t❡❞ ♣❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❡ ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❤❡r ♣♦♦r ❡①♣❡r✐❡♥❝❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✻ ✷✷ ●✉②s ✽✽ ✷✷✳✶ ❋✐rst✱ ❚❤❡ P❤②s✐❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✳✶✳✶ ▼❡♥t❛❧ ❆s♣❡❝ts ❖❢ ❉❛t✐♥❣✱ ❋♦r ❋❡♠❛❧❡ ❆♥♦♥s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✳✷ ❖♥ ❊①❡r❝✐s❡ ❆♥❞ ❲♦r❦✐♥❣ ❖✉t✱ ❊①t❡♥❞✐♥❣ ■♥t♦ ❉✐❡t✐♥❣ ✷✷✳✷✳✶ ❉❛t✐♥❣ ❆ ▼❛❧❡ ✴❇✴t❛r❞ ✽✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✾ ✷✸ ❙❡❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ✷✸✳✶ ❲❤❛t ✐s ❙❡❞✉❝t✐♦♥❄ ✽✽ ✾✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✳✶✳✶ ❍✐st♦r✐❝❛❧ ❋✐❣✉r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✳✶✳✷ ❚❤❡ ▼✐♥❞ ❛t t❤❡ ❘♦♦t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✳✷ ❑❡② ❚❤✐♥❣s t❤❛t ❚✉r♥ ❲♦♠❡♥ ❖♥ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✶ ✾✶ ✾✷ ✾✷ ✷✸✳✸ ❙❡❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸ ✷✸✳✸✳✶ P❧❛②✐♥❣ ❛ P❛rt ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸ ✷✸✳✸✳✷ ❚②♣❡s t♦ ❆✈♦✐❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✳✸✳✸ ❇❡✐♥❣ ❙❡❧❢✲❈♦♥✜❞❡♥t✱ ♥♦t ❛♥ ❆rr♦❣❛♥t ❆ss❤♦❧❡ ✾✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✹ ✷✸✳✸✳✹ ❋❧❛s❤✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠❛s❝✉❧✐♥✐t② ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✹ ✷✸✳✸✳✺ ❋❧❛s❤ ②♦✉r ✇✐t ✾✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✳✸✳✻ ❋❧❛s❤✐♥❣ t❤❡ s✉♣♣♦rt ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✺ ✷✸✳✹ ❚❤❡ ❙♦❝✐❛❧ ▲❛❞❞❡rs ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✺ ✺ ✷✸✳✺ ❙t✐❝❦② s✐t✉❛t✐♦♥s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻ ✷✸✳✺✳✶ ❙t❛❧❦❡rs ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻ ✷✸✳✺✳✷ ❈r❛③✐❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻ ✷✸✳✺✳✸ ❍❛r❞❛ss❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻ ✷✸✳✺✳✹ ▼♦t❤❡r ❍❡♥s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✳✻ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡❧② ❢✉❝❦ ✉♣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ❙❡① ✾✻ ✾✼ ✾✼ ✷✹✳✶ ❋♦r❡♣❧❛② ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹✳✶✳✶ ❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s ❛♥❞ tr✐❝❦s ✾✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✼ ✷✹✳✷ ❙❡① ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✽ ✷✹✳✷✳✶ P♦s✐t✐♦♥s ❛♥❞ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✽ ✷✹✳✷✳✷ ❚✐♣s ❛♥❞ tr✐❝❦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✵ ✷✹✳✸ ❱❛r✐♦✉s ❦✐♥❞s ♦❢ s❡① ❛❝ts ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✸ ✷✹✳✹ ❙❡①✉❛❧ ✐ss✉❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹ ✷✹✳✹✳✶ ❑❡❡♣✐♥❣ ✐t ✉♣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹ ✷✹✳✹✳✷ ●❡tt✐♥❣ ♦✛ ✷✹✳✹✳✸ P❡♥✐s s✐③❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺ ✷✺ ❈♦♥✈❡rs❛t✐♦♥ ✶✵✼ ✷✺✳✶ ❋♦r ❣✉②s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼ ✷✺✳✶✳✶ ❙t②❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼ ✷✺✳✶✳✷ ▲✐st❡♥✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼ ✷✺✳✶✳✸ ❚♦♣✐❝s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✽ ✷✺✳✶✳✹ ❯s❛❣❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾ ✷✺✳✷ ❋♦r ●✐r❧s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾ ✷✺✳✷✳✶ ❙t②❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾ ✷✺✳✷✳✷ ▲✐st❡♥✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾ ✷✺✳✷✳✸ ❚♦♣✐❝s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾ ❱ ❆❜♦✉t t❤✐s ❜♦♦❦ ✶✶✵ ✻ P❛rt ■ ❈❧❡❛♥✐♥❣ ❨♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❯♣ ✶ ●r♦♦♠✐♥❣ ❚❤❡ ❱❡r② ❇❛s✐❝s✿ ❙❤♦✇❡r✱ ❙❤❛✈❡ ❛♥❞ ❇r✉s❤ ✲ ❡✈❡r② ❞❛② ❲❡✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❛ss✉♠❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛ ❝❛✈❡✲tr♦❧❧ ❛♥❞ ❤❛✈❡ ♥❡✈❡r ✇❛s❤❡❞ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❧✐❢❡ s♦ ❆▲▲ t❤❡ ✧♦❜✈✐♦✉s✧ t❤✐♥❣s ❛r❡ ♠❡♥t✐♦♥❡❞✳ ❋✉❝❦✱ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❦♥♦✇ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❞♦ t❤✐s✱ ❜✉t ✇❤♦ ❦♥♦✇s✳ ✶✳✶ ❙❤♦✇❡r✐♥❣ ❙❤♦✇❡rs ❛r❡ ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡❧② ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❡ss❡♥t✐❛❧✳ ❙❤♦✇❡rs ❛r❡ ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ②♦✉r ✇❛② ♦❢ ❦❡❡♣✐♥❣ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❢r❡s❤ ❛♥❞ ♥❡✇ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❤❛✈✐♥❣ t♦ ❞♦ ♠✉❝❤ ♦t❤❡r t❤❛♥ r✉❜ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ♦✈❡r✳ ❙t✉✛ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ✿ ❙♦❛♣ ✭❡✐t❤❡r ❜❛r ♦r ❧✐q✉✐❞✮✱ ❙❤♦✇❡r✱ ❚♦✇❡❧ ✲ srs❧②✱ t❤❛t✬s ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t✬s ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡❧② ♥❡❝❡ss❛r②✱ ❞♦♥✬t ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ ✐t❄ ❚❤❡♥ r❡❛❞ ♦♥✳ ❙t✉✛ ②♦✉ ♠❛② ✇❛♥t ✿ ❙❤❛♠♣♦♦✱ ❈♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥❡r✱ ✭❢❛❝✐❛❧✮ ❈❧❡❛♥s❡r✱ ❙♣♦♥❣❡✴❋❧❛♥♥❡❧✴❇❛❝❦✲❇r✉s❤✴❇❛t❤✲▼✐tt✱ ❛♥②✲ t❤✐♥❣ ❡❧s❡ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ t❤✐♥❦ ♦❢✳ ✶✳ ❚✉r♥ ♦♥ s❤♦✇❡r✱ ❣❡t ✐♥✳ ✷✳ ❘✐♥s❡ ✲ ❜r✐❡✢② r✉❜ ❛❧❧ ♦✈❡r ❜❡❢♦r❡ ✉s✐♥❣ t❤❡ s♦❛♣✱ ❣❡t ❤❛✐r t❤♦r♦✉❣❤❧② s♦❛❦❡❞ ✲ t❤✐s ❣❡ts q✉✐t❡ ❛ ❜✐t ♦❢ t❤❡ ❞✐rt ♦✛ ✭♠♦st ♦❢ ✐t ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❝♦✈❡r❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ♠✉❞ ♦r ◆❖❚ ▼❯❉ ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✮✳ ✸✳ ❲❛s❤ ✲ t❤✐s s❤♦✉❧❞ ❛❧s♦ ❜❡ ♦❜✈✐♦✉s✱ ❜✉t st❛rt ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ t♦♣ ❛♥❞ ✇♦r❦ ②♦✉r ✇❛② ❞♦✇♥ ✲ t❤✐s ✐s s♦ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ✸ ❛✈♦✐❞ r✐♥s✐♥❣ ✇❛s❤❡❞✲♦✛ ❞✐rt ♦♥t♦ t❤❡ ♣❛rts ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❛❧r❡❛❞② ❝❧❡❛♥❡❞✳ ❙t❛rt ✇✐t❤ ❤❡❛❞✴❤❛✐r ✱ r✉❜ t❤❡ s♦❛♣ ✭♦r ✇❤❛t❡✈❡r✮ ✐♥ ❢♦r ❛ ❝♦✉♣❧❡ ♠✐♥✉t❡s t❤❡♥ r✐♥s❡ ✲ r❡♣❡❛t ✉♥t✐❧ ✐t ❢❡❡❧s ❝❧❡❛♥✳ ◆♦✇ t❤❡ ❢❛❝❡✱ ❛❣❛✐♥✱ ❙❖❆P ■❙ ❋■◆❊✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛❧s♦ ✉s❡ ❛ ✢❛♥♥❡❧ ♦r s❝r❛♣❡ ✭s❝r❛♣❡✱ ♥♦t s❝r❛t❝❤✮ ❛♥② ♦❢ t❤❡ ❣r❡❛s✐❡r ♣❛rts ✇✐t❤ ❛ ✜♥❣❡r♥❛✐❧✳ ▲✐❦❡ t❤❡ ✹ ❤❛✐r✱ s♦❛♣✴r✉❜✴r✐♥s❡ ✉♥t✐❧ ❝❧❡❛♥✳ ◆♦✇ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❡ ✇♦r❦✐♥❣ ❞♦✇♥✇❛r❞s❀ ❛r♠s✱ ❛r♠♣✐ts✱ ❝❤❡st✱ ❜❛❝❦✱ ❜❛❧❧s✱ ♣❡♥✐s ✱ ❛ss❝❤❡❡❦s✱ ❛♥✉s✱ ❧❡❣s✱ ❢❡❡t ✐♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ t♦❡s✳ ❋♦r ✇❛s❤✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❜♦❞②✱ s♦♠❡ ❛❜r❛s✐✈❡♥❡ss ♠❛② ❜❡ ✉s❡❢✉❧ ✲ t❤✐s ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✧❣r❛✐♥②✧ s♦❛♣ ♦r t❤❡ s♣♦♥❣❡✴✢❛♥♥❡❧✴♠✐tt ♠❡♥t✐♦♥❡❞ ❛❜♦✈❡✳ ✹✳ ❘✐♥s❡ ✭❛❣❛✐♥✮ ✲ ❡♥s✉r❡ ❛❧❧ s♦❛♣ ❡t❝✳ ✐s ✇❛s❤❡❞ ❛✇❛②✳ ✺✳ ❉r② ✲ ❚❤♦r♦✉❣❤❧②✱ ✇✐t❤ ❛ t♦✇❡❧ ✭♦r ✷✱ ✉♥❧❡ss ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ♠✐♥❞ ✉s✐♥❣ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ♦♥❡ ❢♦r ②♦✉r ❢❛❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❛ss✮✳ ❆❣❛✐♥✱ st❛rt ✇✐t❤ ❤❛✐r ❛♥❞ ✇♦r❦ ❞♦✇♥ t♦ ❢❡❡t✱ ♣❛② ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r ❛tt❡♥t✐♦♥ t♦ ❛r❡❛s ✇❤❡r❡ s❦✐♥ r✉❜s ❛❣❛✐♥st s❦✐♥ ✭❛ss❝r❛❝❦✱ ❛r♠♣✐ts ❡t❝✳✮ ❘❡♠❡♠❜❡r✱ r❡♠♦✈❡ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ♣✉t ♦♥ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ t❤❛t ❞❛②✴②❡st❡r❞❛②✱ ♠❡❛♥✐♥❣ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛❧❦ ✐♥ s♠❡❧❧✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ ❝♦❧♦❣♥❡ ❛♥❞ ❜♦♦③❡✱ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❝♦♠❡ ♦✉t s♠❡❧❧✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ s♦❛♣✳ ❖❢ ❝♦✉rs❡✱ ✉s❡ ❞❡♦❞♦r❛♥t ♦r ❛♥t✐♣❡rs♣✐r❛♥t✳ ❯♥❧❡ss ②♦✉✬r❡ ♦♥❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧✉❝❦② ♦♥❡s ✇❤♦s❡ ❇❖ ✐s♥✬t ❜❛❞ ✭❣❡t s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ❡❧s❡ t♦ ❝♦♥✜r♠ t❤✐s✮✱ ♣✐❝❦ ♦♥❡ ❛♥❞ ✉s❡ ✐t✳ ●♦ ✇✐t❤ st✐❝❦s ♦r r♦❧❧✲♦♥s ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ s♣r❛② ✇❡❛rs ♦✛ ❢❛st❡r ❛♥❞ ❝♦✈❡r✐♥❣ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✐♥ ✐t ✐s ✇♦rs❡ t❤❡♥ s♠❡❧❧✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ ❇❖✳ ❆①✱ ▲②♥① ♦r ❚❛❣ ✇✐❧❧ ♥♦t ❣❡t ❣✐r❧s t♦ ❥✉♠♣ ②♦✉ ✐♥ t❤❡ str❡❡t✱ ✐t✬s ❥✉st ♠❛r❦❡t✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ❞✉♠❜ ❢✉❝❦s✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡ s♠❡❧❧ t❤❡♥ ✉s❡ ✐t ✐♥ ▼❖❉❊❘❆❚■❖◆✦ ✶✳✷ ❙❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❆♥❞ t❤❡♥✱ t❤❡ s❡❝♦♥❞ ♠♦st ♦❜✈✐♦✉s t❛s❦ ❢♦r ②♦✉ t♦ ❞♦✿ ❙❤❛✈❡✱ ✉♥❧❡ss ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣r♦✇ ♥✐❝❡ ❢❛❝✐❛❧ ❤❛✐r t❤❛t ❧♦♦❦s ❣♦♦❞ ♦♥ ②♦✉✳ ❍♦rr✐❜❧❡ ❢❛❝✐❛❧ ❤❛✐r r✉✐♥s ❛ ❣r❡❛t ❢❛❝❡❀ ❣r❡❛t ❢❛❝✐❛❧ ❤❛✐r ✐♠♣r♦✈❡s ❛ ❤♦rr✐❜❧❡ ❢❛❝❡✳ ❚❤✐s ❞♦❡s♥✬t ♠❡❛♥ ❢♦r ②♦✉ t♦ ❣♦ ♦✉t ❛♥❞ ❣r♦✇ ❛ ❣♦❛t❡❡✲ ❝❧❡❛♥ s❤❛✈❡♥ ♠❡♥ ❛r❡ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ♣r❡❢❡rr❡❞✳ ❚❤❡ ♦♥❧② ❡①❝❡♣t✐♦♥ t♦ t❤✐s ✐s ❛ ✧❝❧♦s❡ ❜✉t r♦✉❣❤✧ s❤❛✈❡✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ s♦♠❡ ✇♦♠❡♥ ✜♥❞ ❤♦t✳ ❚❤❛t✬s ❥✉st ❛ ✜✈❡✲♦✲❝❧♦❝❦ s❤❛❞♦✇✱ s♦ t❤❛t ❝♦♠❡s ✇✐t❤ t✐♠❡✱ ❥✉st s❤❛✈❡ ✐t ❛✇❛② ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠♦r♥✐♥❣s ❛♥❞ ❧❡t ✐t ❝♦♠❡ ❜❛❝❦ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❡✈❡♥✐♥❣s✳ ✸ Pr♦t✐♣✿ ❨❖❯ ❉❖◆✬❚ ◆❊❊❉ ❙❍❆▼P❖❖✴❈❖◆❉■❚■❖◆❊❘✱ s♦❛♣ ✇✐❧❧ ❝❧❡❛♥ ✐t ✜♥❡✱ ❛❧t❤♦✉❣❤ ②♦✉ ♠❛② ♣r❡❢❡r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❡❧s❡ ✲ ❣♦ ✇✐t❤ ✇❤❛t s❡❡♠s t♦ ✇♦r❦ ❜❡st ❢♦r t❤❡ ♠♦♥❡② ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ s♣❡♥❞❀ st✐❧❧✱ ❈♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥❡r ✐s ❢♦r ♠❡tr♦✲❢❛❣s✳ ✹ ❚❤❛t ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡s r❡tr❛❝t✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❢♦r❡s❦✐♥ ❢♦r ❝❧❡❛♥✐♥❣ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛ ❊✉r♦❢❛❣ ♦r ♥♦t ❛ ❏❡✇✴❉✉r❦❛t❛r❞✴❆♠❡r✐❑❑❑❛♥✳ ✼ ❊❧❡❝tr✐❝ ♦r ❚r❛❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧✴❙❛❢❡t② ❘❛③♦r❄ ❲❤✐❧❡ t❤❡ ❜❧❛❞❡❞ r❛③♦r ❞♦❡s ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ❛ ♠✉❝❤ s♠♦♦t❤❡r s❤❛✈❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❡❞ t♦ ❛♥ ❡❧❡❝tr✐❝ r❛③♦r✱ t❤❡ tr❛❞❡♦✛ ✐s t❤❛t ♥♦♥✲❡❧❡❝tr✐❝ r❛③♦rs r❡q✉✐r❡✿ ✶✳ ❙✐♥❦ ❢✉❧❧ ♦❢ ❤♦t ✇❛t❡r ✷✳ ❙❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❝r❡❛♠ ✸✳ ❙❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❝r❡❛♠ ❜r✉s❤ ✭②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ♥❡❡❞ t❤✐s ❜✉t ✐t ♠❛❦❡s ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❧❛t❤❡r✐♥❣ ♠✉❝❤ ❡❛s✐❡r ❛♥❞ ♠♦r❡ ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡✮ ✹✳ ❆❢t❡rs❤❛✈❡ ❧♦t✐♦♥✴❣❡❧ ✺✳ ▲♦ts ♦❢ t✐♠❡ ❛♥❞ st❡❛❞② ❤❛♥❞s ❙♦ ✇❤✐❧❡ t❤❡ ❡❧❡❝tr✐❝ ✐s q✉✐❝❦ ❛♥❞ ❞✐rt②✱ t❤❡ str❛✐❣❤t ❡❞❣❡ t❛❦❡s t✐♠❡ ❛♥❞ ♣r❛❝t✐❝❡✱ s♦ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ s♣❛r❡ t✐♠❡ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ❞♦ ♥♦t ✇❛♥t t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ st✉❝❦ t♦♠❛t♦ ✭s❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❝✉t ✰ r❛③♦r ❜✉r♥✮✱ ❣♦ ❡❧❡❝tr✐❝✳ ✶✳✸ ❇r✉s❤✐♥❣ ❚❤❡♥ ❝♦♠❡s t❤❡ ♦❜❧✐❣❛t♦r② t❤❛t ②♦✉r ♠♦t❤❡r ❛❧✇❛②s t❛✉❣❤t ②♦✉✲ ❜r✉s❤ ❛♥❞ ✢♦ss ②♦✉r t❡❡t❤✳ ❇r✉s❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉r t❡❡t❤✱ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s ♦❝❝❛s✐♦♥❛❧❧② ✢♦ss✐♥❣✱ ✐s ❡ss❡♥t✐❛❧ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❜❡ ❢r❡♥❝❤✐♥❣ ❛♥②♦♥❡ ❛♥② t✐♠❡ s♦♦♥✳ ▼❛❦❡ s✉r❡ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❜r✉s❤❡❞ ②♦✉r t❡❡t❤ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉ ❧❡❛✈❡ ②♦✉r ❤♦✉s❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠♦r♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❝❡rt❛✐♥❧② ❛❢t❡r ❜r❡❛❦❢❛st✳ ❈❤❡❝❦ ②♦✉r t♦♥❣✉❡ ❢♦r ❛❝❝✉♠✉❧❛t❡❞ ❣✉♥❦ ✭②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ♣❡r❤❛♣s ❞♦ t❤✐s ❡✈❡r② t✐♠❡ ②♦✉ ❣♦ t♦ ❛ ❜❛t❤r♦♦♠ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ✺ ♠✐rr♦r✮✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❡✐t❤❡r ❜r✉s❤ ✐t ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ♦r s❝r❛♣❡ ✐t ❛❧❧ ♦✛ ✇✐t❤ ❛ t❤✉♠❜♥❛✐❧ ✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✐♥ ❛ s✐t✉❛t✐♦♥ ✇❤❡r❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❜❡ t❛❧❦✐♥❣ t♦ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ t❤✐♥❦ ②♦✉r ❜r❡❛t❤ ♠✐❣❤t s♠❡❧❧✱ ❝❤❡✇ s♦♠❡ ❣✉♠✳ ❨♦✉ ♠✐❣❤t ✜♥❞ ✐t ❤❡❧♣❢✉❧ t♦ ❛❧✇❛②s ❦❡❡♣ ❣✉♠ ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉ ✐♥ ❝❛s❡ ②♦✉ ♠✐❣❤t ♥❡❡❞ ✐t✳ ❚❤❡ ❧❛st t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❛❧s♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t✿ ❜r✉s❤ ②♦✉r ❤❛✐r✳ ❇r✉s❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❤❛✐r ✐s ♥❡❝❡ss❛r②✱ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ s❤♦rt ♦r ❧♦♥❣ ❤❛✐r✳ ❋♦r t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉ ✇✐t❤ ❧♦♥❣ ❤❛✐r✱ ✐t ❣✐✈❡s ✐t ❛ s❧❡❡❦❡r ❛♥❞ ♠✉❝❤ ♠♦r❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❡❞ ❧♦♦❦✲ ❛♥❞ ❢♦r t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉ ✇✐t❤ s❤♦rt✱ ✐t ❦❡❡♣s ✐t ❢r♦♠ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❚❖❖ ♠❡ss②✳ ❚❤❡♥✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❢❡❡❧ t❤❡ ♥❡❡❞✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛❞❞ ❣❡❧ ♦r ❛♥② ♦t❤❡r ❤❛✐r ♣r♦❞✉❝t t♦ ✐t✳ ❏✉st ❞♦♥✬t ❣♦ ♦✈❡r❜♦❛r❞ ✲ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ②♦✉ s♣❡♥t ❛s ♠✉❝❤ t✐♠❡ ❛s ②♦✉r ❞❛t❡ ✜①✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❤❛✐r✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠✳ ❍❛♥❞❧✐♥❣ ❆❝♥❡ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ r❡❛❧❧② ❜❛❞ ❛❝♥❡✱ ②♦✉ ❝♦✉❧❞ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❜❡♥❡✜t ❢r♦♠ s❡❡✐♥❣ ❛ ❞❡r♠❛t♦❧♦❣✐st✳ ❆s❦ ②♦✉r Pr✐♠❛r② ❞♦❝t♦r✱ ❛s t❤❡② ❝❛♥ ♣r❡s❝r✐❜❡ ✈❛r✐♦✉s ❝r❡❛♠s ❢♦r ✈❛r✐♦✉s s❡✈❡r✐t✐❡s✳ ■❢ ✐t✬s ♦♥❧② ♠✐❧❞✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ tr❡❛t ✐t ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❜② ✉s✐♥❣ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❢❛❝✐❛❧ ❝❧❡❛♥s❡r ❛♥❞ ❛❝♥❡ ❝r❡❛♠✳ ❆❝♥❡ ♦❝❝✉rs ✇❤❡♥ ♣♦r❡s ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ♣❧✉❣❣❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❞❡❛❞ s❦✐♥ ❝❡❧❧s ❛♥❞ t❤❡♥ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ✐♥❢❡❝t❡❞ ❜② ❜❛❝t❡r✐❛✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❜✉②✐♥❣ ❢❛❝✐❛❧ ❝❧❡❛♥s❡r✱ ❧♦♦❦ ❢♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❤❛s s❛❧✐❝②❧✐❝ ❛❝✐❞ ❧✐st❡❞ ❛s t❤❡ ❛❝t✐✈❡ ✐♥❣r❡❞✐❡♥t✳ ❙❛❧✐❝②❧✐❝ ❛❝✐❞ ✐s ❛♥ ❡①❢♦❧✐❛t✐♥❣ ❛❣❡♥t✳ ■t ❤❡❧♣s ❦❡❡♣ ②♦✉r ♣♦r❡s ❢r♦♠ ❣❡tt✐♥❣ ❝❧♦❣❣❡❞✳ ◆❡①t✱ ❜✉② s♦♠❡ ❛❝♥❡ ❝r❡❛♠ t❤❛t ❤❛s ❜❡♥③♦②❧ ♣❡r♦①✐❞❡ ❧✐st❡❞ ❛s t❤❡ ❛❝t✐✈❡ ✐♥❣r❡❞✐❡♥t✳ ❇❡♥③♦②❧ ♣❡r♦①✐❞❡ ❦✐❧❧s t❤❡ ❜❛❝t❡r✐❛ t❤❛t ✐♥❢❡❝t ②♦✉r ♣♦r❡s✳ ❲❛s❤ ②♦✉r ❢❛❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❛♣♣❧② t❤❡ ❝r❡❛♠ t✇♦ ♦r t❤r❡❡ t✐♠❡s ♣❡r ❞❛②✳ ❨♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② st❛rt ♦✉t ♦♥❧② ❛♣♣❧②✐♥❣ ✐t ♦♥❝❡ ♣❡r ❞❛②✱ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ s✉r❡ ②♦✉r s❦✐♥ ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ ❛♥② ❛❞✈❡rs❡ r❡❛❝t✐♦♥s t♦ ✐t✳ ■❢ ②♦✉r s❦✐♥ ❣❡ts t♦♦ ❞r② ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝r❡❛♠✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛♣♣❧② ♠♦✐st✉r✐③❡r✳ ✶✳✹ ❚❤❡ ▲❡ss ❋r❡q✉❡♥t ❚❤✐♥❣s ❍❛✐r❝✉ts ❍❛✐r❝✉ts ❛r❡ ❧✐❦❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤❛t t❤❡② ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ❞❡✜♥❡ ✇❤♦ ②♦✉ ❛r❡✳ ❚❤✐s ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ♦r ❜❛❞ t❤✐♥❣ ✲ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❝✉t ❝❛♥ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❝❧❛ss② ❛♥❞ st②❧✐s❤ ✐♥ ❡✈❡♥ t❤❡ s❤✐tt✐❡st s✐t✉❛t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤❡r❡❛s t❤❡ ✇♦rst ❝❛♥ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❢✉❝❦ ②♦✉r ❝♦✉s✐♥ ✭✇♦✉❧❞ ②♦✉ ❢❡❡❧ t❤❛t✬s ❛ ❜❛❞ t❤✐♥❣✮✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦ r❡❛❧❧② ❡❛s② ✇❛② t♦ t❡❧❧ ②♦✉ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❣❡t t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❤❛✐r❞♦✱ ❦❡❡♣ t❤❡ ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣ t❤✐♥❣s ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞✿ • ❙❤♦rt ❜❛r❜❡rs❤♦♣ ❤❛✐r ✐s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② st✉♣✐❞✳ ❲❤❛t ■ ♠❡❛♥ ❜② t❤❛t ✐s t❤❛t t❤♦s❡ ❣❡♥❡r✐❝ ✧✇❤✐t❡ ❜♦②✧ ❤❛✐r❝✉ts t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ♠❡♥ ❣❡t ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❞✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❜✉r♥ ✐♥ ❤❡❧❧✳ ■❢ ✐t ✐♥✈♦❧✈❡s ❝✉tt✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❤❛✐r ✉♥✐✈❡rs❛❧❧② ♦♥❡ ❤❛❧❢ ♦❢ ❛♥ ✐♥❝❤ s❤♦rt ❛♥❞ ❥✉st ✉s✐♥❣ ❛ r❛③♦r ♦♥ ②♦✉r ♥❡❝❦✱ ❞♦♥✬t ❡✈❡♥ ❜♦t❤❡r✳ • ❈r❡✇ ❝✉ts ❛r❡ st✉♣✐❞ t♦♦✳ ❙❡❡ ❛❜♦✈❡✳ ✺ ❙♥✐✛ ②♦✉r t❤✉♠❜♥❛✐❧ ❛❢t❡r✇❛r❞s✱ ❞✐❞ ②♦✉ r❡❛❧❧② ✇❛♥t t♦ ❦❡❡♣ t❤❛t ✐♥ ②♦✉r ♠♦✉t❤❄ ◆♦✇ ✇❛s❤ ②♦✉r ❤❛♥❞s✳ ✽ • ●r♦✇✐♥❣ ♦✉t ②♦✉r ❤❛✐r ✐s ❣♦♦❞✱ ❜✉t ②♦✉ st✐❧❧ ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡❡❞ ❤❛✐r❝✉ts✳ ●❡t ❛ ❣♦♦❞ st②❧✐st✱ t❤❡②✬❧❧ ❦♥♦✇ ✇❤❛t t♦ ❞♦✳ • ▲♦♥❣ ❤❛✐r ✐s ❣♦♦❞✱ ❇❯❚ ❣r❡❛s② ❧♦♥❣ ❤❛✐r ✐s ✐♥❞✐❝❛t✐✈❡ ♦❢ ✧■ st❛② ✉♣ ❛t ♥✐❣❤t ♠❛st✉r❜❛t✐♥❣ t♦ ❢✉rr② ❛♥❞ ♣❧❛②✐♥❣ ❉✫❉✧✳ • ❆❢r♦s ❧♦♦❦ ❝♦♦❧ ♦♥❧② ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❜❧❛❝❦✳ ❆♥❞ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛ s✉✐t✳ Pr❡❢❡r❛❜❧② ♦❜str✉❝t✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♣❛t❤s ♦❢ ♦t❤❡rs ✇❤✐❧❡ ❞❛♥❝✐♥❣ ❜② ❛ ♣♦♦❧✳ ❆❝t✉❛❧❧②✱ ❧❡t✬s ❥✉st ♠❛❦❡ ❛ ❧✐st ♦❢ ✇❤❛t ◆❖❚ t♦ ❞♦✳ ❉❖ ◆❖❚ ❉❖ ❆◆❨ ❖❋ ❚❍❊ ❋❖▲▲❖❲■◆●✿ • ❈r❡✇ ❝✉ts • ❇♦✇❧ ❝✉ts • ❇❡❛t❧❡s✲st②❧❡ ❧♦♦❦s • ❈✉ts r❡q✉✐r✐♥❣ ❡①❝❡ss✐✈❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ ❛ str❛✐❣❤t❡♥✐♥❣ ✐r♦♥ • ❈✉ts r❡q✉✐r✐♥❣ ♣♦♠❛❞❡ • ❙♣✐❦❡❞ ❤❛✐r t❤❛t ✐s♥✬t r❛③♦r❡❞ • ▼✉❧❧❡ts • P♦♥②t❛✐❧s✱ ❡s♣✳ ❣r❡❛s② ♦♥❡s • P♦r❦ ❝❤♦♣ s✐❞❡❜✉r♥s • ❆♥②t❤✐♥❣ ✐♥✈♦❧✈✐♥❣ ✈✐✈✐❞ ❝♦❧♦rs ✭❣r❡❡♥✱ r❡❞✱ ❜❧✉❡✱ ❡t❝✮ • ❇❧❡❛❝❤ ②♦✉r ❤❛✐r t❤❛t ♥❛st② ②❡❧❧♦✇ ❝♦❧♦r✳ • ❉②❡ ❛ ♣❛rt ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❤❛✐r ❛♥❞ ❧❡❛✈❡ t❤❡ r❡st ♥❛t✉r❛❧ ✭❧✐❦❡✱ ❞②✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❜❛♥❣s✮ • ❆♥②t❤✐♥❣ ✐♥✈♦❧✈✐♥❣ ❛ ✧❙✇♦♦♣✧ • ❆♥②t❤✐♥❣ ✐♥ ♣❛tt❡r♥s ♦r ❞❡s✐❣♥s • ✧❈✉t ❛r♦✉♥❞✧ ②♦✉r ❡②❡s ❲✐t❤ t❤❛t ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞✱ ❦♥♦✇ ②♦✉r s❛❧♦♥ ♣r♦❝❡❞✉r❡✳ ❋✐rst✱ ✜♥❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛ ❙❆▲❖◆ ✲ ♥♦t ❛ ❜❛r❜❡rs❤♦♣✳ ❙❛❧♦♥s ❛r❡ ✉s✉❛❧❧② r✉♥ ❜② ✇♦♠❡♥✱ ♥♦t ❜② ♠❡♥✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t t❤❡② t❡♥❞ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❛t ♠❡♥✬s ❤❛✐r ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ✇❤❛t s❡❡♠s t♦ ❜❡ t❤❡ st②❧❡ ♦♥ ❈◆◆ ♦r ❋❖❳ ◆❡✇s✳ ❈❛❧❧ ✐♥ ❡❛r❧② ❛♥❞ s❝❤❡❞✉❧❡ ❛♥ ❛♣♣♦✐♥t♠❡♥t ✲ ❛♥❞ ❢♦r ❣♦❞✬s s❛❦❡✱ ❆❙❑ ❍❖❲ ▲❖◆● ❚❍❊ ❍❆■❘❉❘❊❙❙❊❘ ❍❆❙ ❲❖❘❑❊❉ ❆❚ ❚❍❊ ❙❆▲❖◆✳ ◆❡✈❡r ❧❡t t❤❡♠ ♣❧❛❝❡ ②♦✉ ✇✐t❤ ✧t❤❡ ♥❡✇ ❣✐r❧✧ ✭t❤❡② ✇✐❧❧ ✇❛♥t t♦✮✳ ■❢ t❤❡② ❞♦✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♥♦ ❞♦✉❜t ❣❡t ❛ ❜✉t❝❤❡r❡❞ ❤❛✐r❝✉t ✇✐t❤ ❤♦rr✐❜❧❡ ❢❛s❤✐♦♥ s❡♥s❡✱ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ②♦✉ ✇♦✉❧❞ ❣❡t ❛ ❜❛❞ ❞✐♥♥❡r ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❛s❦❡❞ ❛ ♥❡✇ ❝♦♦❦ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❤❡ ❤❛s ♥❡✈❡r ♠❛❞❡ ❜❡❢♦r❡✳ ❆s ❢♦r ②♦✉r ❤❛✐rst②❧❡✱ t❤❡ ❜❡st t❤✐♥❣ ❢♦r ②♦✉ t♦ ❞♦ ✐s ❛s❦ t❤❡ st②❧✐sts✳ ❙♦♠❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❜❡st ❛❞✈✐❝❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❣♦tt❡♥ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❧✐♥❡ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ✉s❡ ✇❤✐❧❡ ❝❧♦t❤❡s s❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ✲ ❡✐t❤❡r ✧❲❤❛t ❞♦ ②♦✉ t❤✐♥❦ ✇♦✉❧❞ ❧♦♦❦ ❣♦♦❞ ♦♥ ♠❡✧✱ ♦r ✧❲❤❛t ✇♦✉❧❞ ②♦✉ ❞♦ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❡r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❞❛t❡ ♠❡❄✧✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ❧✐♥❡s ✇♦r❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❝❤❛r♠s ✲ ❜✉t ❞♦ ♥♦t❡ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ s✉r❡ t❤❛t ②♦✉r st②❧✐st ✐s♥✬t ❢r❡❛❦✐♥❣ ❝r❛③②✳ ❖♥❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r ❛♥♦♥ ❧❡❛r♥❡❞ ✈❡r② q✉✐❝❦❧② t❤❛t ♦♥❡ ❞♦❡s ♥♦t ✉s❡ s✉❝❤ ❛ ❧✐♥❡ ✇❤❡♥ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠✐❞❞❧❡ ♦❢ ❛ s♠❛❧❧ t♦✇♥ ❢✉❧❧ ♦❢ ❤✐❝❦ ❣✐r❧s✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ✈❡r② ❜❛❞ ❛❝♥❡✱ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❣❡tt✐♥❣ ❛ s❤♦rt ❤❛✐r❝✉t✳ ❈✉t ❊✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❙t♦♣ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ tr♦❧❧ ✲ ❝✉t ②♦✉r ✜♥❣❡r♥❛✐❧s ❛♥❞ t♦❡♥❛✐❧s✱ ❝❧❡❛♥ ②♦✉r ❡❛rs✱ ♣❧✉❝❦ ②♦✉r ♥♦str✐❧ ❤❛✐rs✱ ❣❡t r✐❞ ♦❢ ❛♥② ✧♠♦❧❡ ❤❛✐r✧ ✭❞❛r❦ ❤❛✐r ❝♦♠✐♥❣ ♦✉t ♦❢ ♠♦❧❡s✮✱ ♠❛❦❡ s✉r❡ ②♦✉r ❡②❡❜r♦✇s ❛r❡ ❞❡❝❡♥t ❛♥❞ ♥♦t ❜✉s❤②✱ ❛♥❞ ❝✉t ♦✛ ❛♥② ❤❛♥❣♥❛✐❧s ✭❝✉t✐❝❧❡ t❤❛t ❝♦♠❡s ❧♦♦s❡✮ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ✐t ❜❡❝♦♠❡s ♣❛✐♥❢✉❧✳ ■♥ ❛❞❞✐t✐♦♥✱ tr② tr✐♠♠✐♥❣ ❜❛❝❦ s♦♠❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❤✉❣❡ ❜✉s❤ ②♦✉ ❣♦t✱ ❧❡ss ❤❛✐r ❂ ❜✐❣❣❡r ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❞✐❝❦ ❛♥❞ ❧❡ss s❤✐t t♦ s❝❛r❡ ❛ ❝❤✐❝❦ ❛✇❛② ✇✐t❤✳ ▲❡ss ❤❛✐r✱ ♠♦r❡ ❤❡❛❞✳ ✾ ❚❤❡ ❙❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❚❤✐♥❣✿ ●✉②s ❚❤✐s ✐s ♦♥❡ ♦❢ t❤♦s❡ t♦♣✐❝s t❤❛t ✐s ✉♣ ❢♦r ❞❡❜❛t❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧❧② ❛❧❧ t❤❡ t✐♠❡✳ ❨♦✉✱ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛ ♠❛❧❡✱ ❛r❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ♣r♦♥❡ t♦ ❣r♦✇✐♥❣ ❜♦❞② ❤❛✐r✳ ❙♦♠❡ ❣✐r❧s ❧✐❦❡ ✐t✱ s♦♠❡ ❣✐r❧s ❞♦♥✬t✳ ■t✬s ❛❧❧ ✉♣ t♦ ②♦✉ t♦ ❞❡❝✐❞❡ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ❞♦ ❛♥❞ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❡ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❜❡❛r ♦r ♥♦t✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛❧❧②✱ t❤✐♥❦ ♦❢ ✐t t❤✐s ✇❛② ✲ ❧❡❣ ❤❛✐r ❛♥❞ ❛r♠ ❤❛✐r ❛r❡ ♥♦t ♣r♦❜❧❡♠s✳ ❇❡❧✐❡✈❡ ✐t ♦r ♥♦t✱ ♠❛♥② ❣✐r❧s r❡❛❧❧② ❞♦♥✬t ❝❛r❡ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❣♦r✐❧❧❛✲❧✐❦❡ ❧❡❣ ❤❛✐r ✲ t❤♦✉❣❤ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ♥✐❝❡ ❜♦❞② ❞❡✜♥✐t✐♦♥✱ ✐t✬s ❣♦♦❞ t♦ s❤❛✈❡ ✐t ♦✛✳ ❨♦✉ ♠❛② ❜❡ r✐❞✐❝✉❧❡❞ ❢♦r t❤✐s✱ s♦ ❞♦ ❜❡ ❝❛r❡❢✉❧✳ ❇✉t t❤❡ r❡❛❧ ✐ss✉❡ ✐s ②♦✉r ❝❤❡st ❛♥❞ ♠♦st ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❧②✱ ♣✉❜❡s✳ ❨♦✉r ❝❤❡st ✐s ❛♥♦t❤❡r ♦♥❡ ♦❢ t❤♦s❡ ✧❝❤♦♦s❡ ②♦✉r ♦✇♥ ❛❞✈❡♥t✉r❡✧ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❞❡❛❧s ✲ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ s❤❛❣✲r✉❣ q✉❛❧✐t② ❤❛✐r✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ✈❡r② ❧✐tt❧❡ r❡❛s♦♥ ❢♦r ②♦✉ t♦ s❤❛✈❡ ✐t✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛♣♣❡♥ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ s♠❛❧❧ ❧✐❣❤t ❤❛✐rs t❤❛t ❧♦♦❦ st✉♣✐❞✱ s❤❛✈✐♥❣ ✐t ♠✐❣❤t ❜❡ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ✐❞❡❛ ❛♥②✇❛②✳ P✉❜❡s ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❜❡ tr✐♠♠❡❞✳ ❆❧✇❛②s✳ ❨❡s✱ ✐t ♠❛② ❜❡ ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ str❛♥❣❡ ♦r ❛r❝❛♥❡ ❢♦r ②♦✉ t♦ ❞♦ s♦✱ ❜✉t ❣❡tt✐♥❣ r✐❞ ♦❢ t❤♦s❡ t❤✐♥❣s ✐s t❤❡ t✐❝❦❡t ✐♥t♦ ❛ ✇♦♠❛♥✬s ♠♦✉t❤ ❛♥❞ ❡✈❡r② ♦t❤❡r ❤♦❧❡ ✐♥ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥✳ ❚❤✐s ❞♦❡s♥✬t ♠❡❛♥ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ◆❛✐r t❤❡ ✇❤♦❧❡ t❤✐♥❣ ✭t❤♦✉❣❤ t❤❛t ❞♦❡s ❣♦♦❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡ ❜❛❧❞ ❧♦♦❦✮✱ ✐t ❥✉st ♠❡❛♥s ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ✐t ❡✐t❤❡r tr✐♠♠❡❞ ♦r ❣♦♥❡✳ ❆♥❞ ♥♦t ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ♠♦t❤❡r ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❥✉♥❣❧❡✳ ❍❡②✱ ✐t✬s ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉ ✲ ♥♦ ✉♥s✐❣❤t❧② ♣✉❜❡s ♦♥ t❤❡ ❜❛t❤r♦♦♠ ✢♦♦r ❛♥②♠♦r❡✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❞✐s❣✉st✐♥❣✳ ❚❤❡ ❙❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❚❤✐♥❣✿ ●✐r❧s ■❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❛ ✇♦♠❛♥✱ ♦♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ❤❛♥❞✱ ♠♦st ♥♦r♠❛❧ ❣✉②s ❞♦♥✬t ♣r❡❢❡r t♦ ❣♦ t♦ ❜❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❈❤❡✇❜❛❝❝❛✳ ❙♦✱ ✉♥❧❡ss t❤❡ ❣✉② ②♦✉✬r❡ ❢❛♥❝②✐♥❣ ❤❛s ❛ t❤✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❣✐r❧s t❤❛t ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❩✐r❛ ❢r♦♠ P❧❛♥❡t ♦❢ t❤❡ ❆♣❡s✱ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ✇❛♥t t♦ s❤❛✈❡✳ ❑❡② ❛r❡❛s t♦ ✇❛t❝❤ ♦✉t ❢♦r✿ • ❚❤❡ ❧❡❣s✳ ❋♦r ❛ ❣✐r❧ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ❤❛✐r② ❧❡❣s ✐s ❛♥ ✐♥st❛♥t❛♥❡♦✉s s✐❣♥ ♦❢ ❧❛❝❦ ♦❢ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧ ❤②❣✐❡♥❡✳ ❆ ❧✐tt❧❡ ❧❡❣ st✉❜❜❧❡ ✐s♥✬t s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❛♥ ❤❡r♦ ♦✈❡r✱ ❜✉t ✐t ✐s s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❜❡ ✇❛r② ♦❢✳ ❋❡♠❛❧❡ ❧❡❣ ❤❛✐r ❝❛♥ t✉r♥ ❢r♦♠ t✐♥② st✉❜❜❧❡ t♦ ❣♦r✐❧❧❛ ❧❡❣s ✐♥ ❛ ♠❛tt❡r ♦❢ ❞❛②s✱ s♦ ✐t✬s ✇✐s❡ t♦ t❛❦❡ ❛ r❛③♦r t♦ t❤❡ ❧❡❣ ❤❛✐r ❡✈❡r② t✐♠❡ ②♦✉ ❜❛t❤❡✱ ♦r ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ t♦♦ ❝❤✐❝❦❡♥✴✐♥❝♦♥✈❡♥✐❡♥❝❡❞ ❜② ✉s✐♥❣ ❛ r❛③♦r✱ ♦♣t ❢♦r ❛ ❞❡♣✐❧❛t♦r② ❝r❡❛♠ ✐♥st❡❛❞✳ ◆❛✐r ♦r ❱❡❡t ✇♦r❦ ❣r❡❛t ❤❡r❡ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❤❛✐r ✐s ❣♦♥❡ ❢♦r ❛ ❧♦♥❣❡r t✐♠❡✳ • ❚❤❡ ❛r♠♣✐ts✳ ❆r♠♣✐t ❤❛✐r ✐s ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ✉♥s✐❣❤t❧②✱ ✐t s❡r✈❡s ❛s ❛ ❝♦❧❧❡❝t✐♥❣ ♣❧❛❝❡ ❢♦r s✇❡❛t✱ ❜❛❝t❡r✐❛ ❛♥❞ ❞❡❛❞ s❦✐♥ ❝❡❧❧s✱ t❤❡ ❝♦❝❦t❛✐❧ ♦❢ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝❛♥ ♣r♦❞✉❝❡ ❛ ♥❛st② ❝❛s❡ ♦❢ ❇✳❖✳ ❙❤❛✈❡ ②♦✉r ❛r♠♣✐t ❤❛✐r✱ ♦r ❛s ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧❡❣s s❡❝t✐♦♥✱ ❞❡♣✐❧❛t❡ ✐t✳ • ❚❤❡ ♣✉❜❡s✳ ❨❡s✱ ②♦✉ ❤❡❛r❞ ❝♦rr❡❝t❧②✳ ❨♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ✇❛① ✐t ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ♣♦r♥ st❛r ❛♥❞ tr✉st ♠❡✱ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ✇❛♥t t♦❀ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❛♥ ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡ ♣r♦❝❡❞✉r❡✱ ♥♦t t♦ ♠❡♥t✐♦♥ ✐t ❤✉rts ❧✐❦❡ ❤❡❧❧✳ ■t✬s ②♦✉r ❝❤♦✐❝❡ ♦♥ ✇❤❡t❤❡r ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ s❤❛✈❡ ✐t ♦r ❞❡♣✐❧❛t❡ ✐t✱ ❜✉t ✐t✬s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ❜❡tt❡r t♦ ❞❡♣✐❧❛t❡✳ ❨♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❜❡♥❞ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❝♦♥t♦rt✐♦♥✐st t♦ s❤❛✈❡ ❡✈❡r② ♥♦♦❦ ❛♥❞ ❝r❛♥♥②✳ ❲❤❡t❤❡r ②♦✉✬r❡ ❜❡✐♥❣ s❡❡♥ ♥❛❦❡❞ ♦r ✐♥ ❛ ❜✐❦✐♥✐✱ ❣r♦♦♠✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ♣✉❜✐❝ ❤❛✐r ✐s ❛ ❣♦♦❞ t❤✐♥❣✳ ◆♦❜♦❞② ✇❛♥ts t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❛t ❛ ❤♦t ❝❤✐❝❦ ❛t t❤❡ ❜❡❛❝❤ ❛♥❞ s❡❡ t❤❡ ❆♠❛③♦♥ ❘❛✐♥❢♦r❡st ❤❛♥❣✐♥❣ ♦✉t ♦❢ ❤❡r ❜✐❦✐♥✐ ❜♦tt♦♠✳ ❆t t❤❡ s❛♠❡ t✐♠❡ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❧✉❝❦② ❡♥♦✉❣❤ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❣✉② ❣♦ ❞♦✇♥ ♦♥ ②♦✉ ✭❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❜❡ ❘❊❆▲▲❨ ❧✉❝❦② ❢♦r t❤✐s ♦♥❡✮ ❤❡ ❞♦❡s♥✬t ✇❛♥t t♦ ❣❡t ❤❛✐r ✐♥ ❤✐s t❡❡t❤✳ ❨♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ s❤❛✈❡ ✐t ❛❧❧ ♦✛ ❡✐t❤❡r✳ ▼♦st❧② ✇❛t❝❤ t❤❡ ❜✐❦✐♥✐ ❧✐♥❡✳ ❚❤❡ ❚❛♥♥✐♥❣ ❚❤✐♥❣ ●❡tt✐♥❣ ❛ t❛♥✱ ✇❤✐❧❡ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❢r♦✇♥❡❞ ✉♣♦♥ ❜② ♠♦st ♠❡♥✱ ✐s ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ②♦✉r t✐❝❦❡t ❢r♦♠ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ♣✉❞❣② s❛❝❦ ♦❢ s❤✐t✳ ❇❡ ❤♦♥❡st ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✲ ❣✐r❧s ✇✐t❤ t❛♥s✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ♥✉❞❡ ❣✐r❧s ✇✐t❤ t❛♥s✱ ❧♦♦❦ r❡❛❧❧② ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ❜② ✐♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❧♦♦❦ ♣r❡tt② ❣♦♦❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❣❡t ❛ t❛♥✳ ❲❡❧❧✱ t❤❛t✬s ❛♥ ♦❞❞ st❛t❡♠❡♥t✱ ❜✉t ✐t ✐s tr✉❡✳ ▼❛♥② ♣♦r♥st❛rs ♣✉r♣♦s❡❧② t❛♥ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡② ❦♥♦✇ t❤❡ ♥❛❦❡❞ ❤✉♠❛♥ ❢♦r♠ ❧♦♦❦s ❜❡tt❡r ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❜✐t ♦❢ ❜r♦✇♥ t♦ ✐t✱ r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ✇❤✐t❡✳ ❯♥❧❡ss ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❤❛t ✇❤♦❧❡ ✧❏❛♣❛♥❡s❡ ✇❛✐❢✧ ❧♦♦❦✱ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ tr② t♦ ❛t ❧❡❛st ❣♦ ✉♣ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣✐❣♠❡♥t s❝❛❧❡✳ ❚❤✐s ❝❛♥ r❡❛❧❧② t✐❡ ✐♥ ♥✐❝❡❧② ✇✐t❤ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡✳ ●♦ ♦✉t t♦ ❛♥ ♦✉t❞♦♦r ♣♦♦❧ ❡✈❡r② ♦♥❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❛ ✇❤✐❧❡ ❛♥❞ ❥✉st s✐t t❤❡r❡ ❛♥❞ t❛♥✳ ❙✇✐♠ ❛ ❜✐t✳ ❚❤❡♥ r❡❧❛①✳ ❚❤❡♥ s✇✐♠✳ ■t✬s ♥✐❝❡✱ r❡❧❛①✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ❦♥♦✇ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❜❡❝♦♠✐♥❣ ♦♥❧② t❤❛t ♠✉❝❤ ♠♦r❡ st✉❞❧②✳ ❚❛♥♥✐♥❣ ❛❧s♦ ❤❡❧♣s ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ❛❢♦r❡♠❡♥t✐♦♥❡❞ ❛❝♥❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠✱ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r❧② t❤❡ ✈❛r✐❡t✐❡s ❦♥♦✇♥ ❛s ✧r❛❝❦♥❡✧✱ ✧❜❛❝❦♥❡✧✱ ❛♥❞ ✧❝r❛❝❦♥❡✳✧ ❚❤✐s ✐s ✉♥❧❡ss ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❜❧❛❝❦✱ ♦r ❛♥② ♦t❤❡r r❛❝❡ ✇✐t❤ ♥❛t✉r❛❧❧② ❞❛r❦ s❦✐♥✳ ✶✵ ✷ ❉r❡ss✐♥❣ ❈❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❛♥ ❡ss❡♥t✐❛❧ ♣❛rt ♦❢ ❧✐❢❡✱ ♠❛✐♥❧② ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡ ♦♥❧② t✐♠❡ ②♦✉ s❡❡♠ t♦ ❜❡ ❛❧❧♦✇❡❞ t♦ ♥♦t ✇❡❛r ✐t ✐s ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❛ ♥✉❞✐st✱ ❤❛✈✐♥❣ s❡①✱ ♦r ✐♥ t❤❡ s❤♦✇❡r✳ ❚❤❛t✬s ✇❤② ♠♦st ❝♦✉♥tr✐❡s ♣❧❛❝❡ ❛ ❜✐❣ ❡♠♣❤❛s✐s ♦♥ st②❧❡ ❛♥❞ ❢❛s❤✐♦♥ ✲ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ t❛❦❡ ❝❧♦t❤ t❤❛t ❡✈❡r②♦♥❡ ✇❡❛rs ❛♥❞ ❧♦♦❦ ❣♦♦❞ ❞♦✐♥❣ ✐t✳ ❊✈❡♥ t❤♦✉❣❤ ✐t ♠❛❦❡s ❧✐tt❧❡ s❡♥s❡ t♦ s♦♠❡✱ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❝❧♦t❤❡s ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ♥❛♠❡s ❝❛♥ ♠❛❦❡ ❛❧❧ t❤❡ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥❝❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞✳ ▲♦♦❦ ❛t ♠♦✈✐❡ st❛rs❀ s♦♠❡ ❛r❡ ✐♥s❛♥❡❧② ✉❣❧②✱ ❜✉t ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ ●r♦♦♠✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ s♦♠❡ st②❧❡✱ ♠✐❧❧✐♦♥s ♦❢ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❛r♦✉♥❞ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞ ❛r❡ ✇✐❧❧✐♥❣ t♦ ❦✐ss t❤❡✐r ❛ss✳ ❨♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ r♦❝❦ ❤❛r❞ ❛❜s✱ ❡✐t❤❡r✳ ❚❤❡ r✐❣❤t ✜t ❢♦r t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❝❧♦t❤❡s ❝❛♥ t✉r♥ ②♦✉ ❢r♦♠ ❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❡r ❣❡❡❦ ✐♥t♦ ❛ ❣✐❣♦❧♦✳ ✷✳✶ ❚❤❡ ❱❡r② ❇❛s✐❝s ❚❤❡ ✈❡r② ✜rst t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ❛❜♦✉t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s t❤❛t ❢♦r t❤❡ ♠♦st ♣❛rt✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ s♦♠❡ t❤✐♥❣s t❤❛t ❡✈❡r②♦♥❡ ♥❡❡❞s✱ ❜❛r ♥♦♥❡✳ ❚❤✐s ❡①t❡♥❞s ❜❡②♦♥❞ ✉♥❞❡r✇❡❛r✱ t♦♦✳ ❙♦✱ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉ ❡✈❡♥ ❜❡❣✐♥ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❛t ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠✐rr♦r ❛♥❞ ❞❡❝✐❞❡ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✇✐s❡✱ r❡❛❧✐③❡ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ❛t ❧❡❛st t❤❡ ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣ ❜❛s✐❝s✿ • ❯♥❞❡r✇❡❛r ✲ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❜✉t t✐❣❤t② ✇❤✐t✐❡s ❛♥❞ ✧❥♦❦❡✧ ❜♦①❡rs✳ • P❛♥ts ✲ ❏❡❛♥s✱ ❑❤❛❦✐s✱ ❙❤♦rts✱ ❛♥❞ ❉r❡ss ♣❛♥ts✳ • ❙❤✐rts ✲ ❯♥❞❡rs❤✐rts✱ ♣❧❛✐♥ ❚✲s❤✐rts✱ st②❧❡❞ ❚✲s❤✐rts✱ ❧♦♥❣ s❧❡❡✈❡❞ s❤✐rts✱ t❛♥❦ t♦♣s✳ • ✧❖✈❡rs❤✐rts✧ ✲ ❇✉tt♦♥ ❞♦✇♥ s❤✐rts✱ ❝❤❡❛♣ s✉✐t ❥❛❝❦❡ts✱ ❡t❝✳ • ❆❝❝❡ss♦r✐❡s ✲ ❆t ❧❡❛st ♦♥❡ ❜❡❧t✱ ♣♦ss✐❜❧② ❛ ♥❡❝❦❧❛❝❡ ♦r ❛ r✐♥❣ ♦❢ s♦♠❡ ❦✐♥❞✱ ❛ ✇❛t❝❤✱ s❝❛r❢✱ ❡t❝✳ • ❆ ❙✉✐t ✲ ❛ ❞❡❝❡♥t ❜❧❛❝❦ ♦r ❣r❛② s✉✐t ✇✐t❤ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ❝♦♥s❡r✈❛t✐✈❡ ❛❝❝❡ss♦r✐❡s✲ ✐♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ ❛ ♠❛t❝❤✐♥❣ t✐❡✳ • ❖✉t❡r✇❡❛r ✲ ❖♥❡ ❥❛❝❦❡t ✭❧❡❛t❤❡r ✐s ❣♦♦❞✮✱ ♦♥❡ ❝♦❛t ✭♣r❡❢❡r❛❜❧② ✇✐t❤♦✉t ✧❚❍❊ ◆❖❘❚❍ ❋❆❈❊✧ ♦♥ ✐t✮✳ ❊✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✈❡ ✐s ♦❜✈✐♦✉s❧② t❤❡ ❜❛s✐❝s✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❤❛✈❡ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ♠❡♥t✐♦♥❡❞ ❛❧r❡❛❞②✳ ❲❤❛t ♠❛② s✉r♣r✐s❡ ②♦✉ ✐s t❤❛t ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ✈❡r② ❜❛s✐❝s ❧✐st❡❞ ❛❜♦✈❡✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❧♦♦❦ ❞❡❝❡♥t ❛❧r❡❛❞②✱ ♣❡♥❞✐♥❣ t❤❛t t❤❡ st✉✛ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ✐s ♦❢ ❞❡❝❡♥t q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ●✉②s ❤❛✈❡ ✐t ❡❛s② s♦ ❢❛r ❛s ❢❛s❤✐♦♥ ❣♦❡s ✐♥ t❤✐s r❡❛❧♠✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡ st②❧❡s ✻ ♥❡✈❡r ❝❤❛♥❣❡ t♦♦ r❛❞✐❝❛❧❧② ♠✉❝❤ ✲ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t s♦ ❧♦♥❣ ❛s ②♦✉ ❞✐❞ s♦♠❡ ❞❡❝❡♥t s❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ✺ ②❡❛rs ❛❣♦ ✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❞♦ ✇❡❧❧ t♦❞❛②✳ Pr♦❜❛❜❧②✳ ✷✳✷ ❨♦✉r st②❧❡ ❚✐♠❡ ❢♦r s♦♠❡ ✐♥tr♦s♣❡❝t✐✈❡ ❜✉❧❧s❤✐t ✲ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ✜♥❞ ♦✉t ②♦✉r ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r st②❧❡ ❛♥❞ ✇♦r❦ ❢r♦♠ t❤❡r❡✳ ❇❡❧✐❡✈❡ ✐t ♦r ♥♦t✱ ❤♦✇ ②♦✉ ❞r❡ss ✐s ❤♦✇ ②♦✉ ❛♣♣❡❛r t♦ ♦t❤❡r ♣❡♦♣❧❡✲ t❤♦s❡ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛ ❛♥❦❧❡✲❧❡♥❣t❤ tr❡♥❝❤❝♦❛t ❛♥❞ ❜❛❝❦✇❛r❞s ❜❛s❡❜❛❧❧ ❤❛t ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ r❛❞✐❝❛❧❧② ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t t❤❛♥ t❤♦s❡ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❯♥❞❡r❛r♠♦r ❛♥❞ r✉♥♥✐♥❣ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❢♦♦t❜❛❧❧ ✐♥ t❤❡✐r ❤❛♥❞✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❛t ❜❡✐♥❣ s❛✐❞✱ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ✜❣✉r❡ ♦✉t ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣✉❧❧ ♦✛✱ ❛♥❞ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥♥♦t✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s r❡♠❛r❦❛❜❧② ❡❛s② ♥♦✇❛❞❛②s✱ ♣✉r❡❧② ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛❧✇❛②s ❢❛❧❧ ♦♥ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❣❡♥❡r✐❝ ❛♥❞ st✐❧❧ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡ ❝❛✈❡❛t t♦ t❤❛t ✐s t❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ ❣❡♥❡r✐❝✱ ♠❡❛♥✐♥❣ t❤❛t st❛♥❞✐♥❣ ♦✉t ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❤❛r❞❡r✳ ❚❤❛t✱ ♦❢ ❝♦✉rs❡✱ ✐s ❛ ❜❛❞ t❤✐♥❣✳ ❨♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❜❡ t❤❡ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❣✉② t❤❛t ❣✐r❧s s♣♦♥t❛♥❡♦✉s❧② ♦r❣❛s♠ ♦✈❡r✱ ♥♦t t❤❡ ❦✐♥❞ t❤❛t ❜❧❡♥❞s ✐♥✳ ❙♦✱ ❧❡t✬s ✜rst ❧♦♦❦ ❛t ②♦✉r ♣r✐♠❛r② ❞❡❝✐❞✐♥❣ ❢❛❝t♦r ✲ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② t②♣❡✳ • ❊❝t♦♠♦r♣❤s ❊❝t♦♠♦r♣❤s ❛r❡ ②♦✉r s❦✐♥♥② ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✇❤♦ ❞♦♥✬t ❣❛✐♥ ✇❡✐❣❤t✱ ❜✉t ❞♦♥✬t ❣❛✐♥ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ❡✐t❤❡r✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❡①❛♠♣❧❡✱ ❧♦♦❦ ❛t t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ❡♠♦ ❜❛♥❞s✳ ❚❤❡ ♥✐❝❡ t❤✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛♥ ❡❝t♦♠♦r♣❤ ✐s t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ✇♦rr② ❛❜♦✉t ❤✐❞✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② t②♣❡✱ ❜✉t t❤❡ ❝❛t❝❤ t♦ t❤❛t ✐s t❤❡ ❢❛❝t t❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ♥❡✈❡r ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ✈❡r② ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣❡❞ ❜♦❞② t♦ s❤♦✇ ♦✛ ❛♥②✇❛②✳ ❚❤✐s ❜♦❞② t②♣❡ ✐s ♥✐❝❡ ❢♦r ❣✐r❧s✲ ❜✉t ❢♦r ❣✉②s✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ tr② t♦ ❞♦ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❛t ❧❡❛st ❧♦♦❦ ♠❛s❝✉❧✐♥❡✳ ❚❤❛♥❦❢✉❧❧②✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣✉❧❧ ✐t ♦✛ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ st②❧❡s ✲ ②♦✉✬r❡ t❤❡ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ t❤❛t ❝❤❛✐♥s ❧✐❦❡ ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r✱ ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤ ❛✐♠ ❢♦r✳ ✻ ▼❡♠❜❡rs ❖♥❧② ❥❛❝❦❡ts ♥♦t ❛♣♣❧②✐♥❣ ✶✶ • ▼❡s♦♠♦r♣❤s ▼❡s♦♠♦r♣❤s ❛r❡ ②♦✉r ♥❛t✉r❛❧ str❡♥❣t❤ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❆ ❣♦♦❞ ❡①❛♠♣❧❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s ✐s ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❜♦❞② ❜✉✐❧❞❡r ♦r ❛t❤❧❡t❡✲ ♠✉s❝✉❧❛r✱ ♣♦✇❡r❢✉❧✱ ❛♥❞ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② tr✐❛♥❣❧❡✲s❤❛♣❡❞✳ ▼❡s♦♠♦r♣❤s t❡♥❞ t♦ ❜✉✐❧❞ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ❡❛s✐❧②✱ ❛♥❞ t❡♥❞ t♦ r❡t❛✐♥ ✐t ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ♦t❤❡r ❜♦❞② t②♣❡s✳ ❆s t❤❡ s❤♦✇♠❡♥ P❡♥♥ ❛♥❞ ❚❡❧❧❡r s❛✐❞ ♦♥ t❤❡✐r s❤♦✇ ✧❇✉❧❧s❤✐t✧✱ ✐t✬s ❧✐❦❡ ✇✐♥♥✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❣❡♥❡ ❧♦tt❡r②✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛ ♠❡s♦♠♦r♣❤ ✐s ❤❛r❞✲ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❣❡t ✉s❡❞ t♦ ❜✉②✐♥❣ s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ❝✉t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❛❝❝♦♠♠♦❞❛t❡ ❜r♦❛❞ s❤♦✉❧❞❡rs ❛♥❞✴♦r ❜✐❣ ❜♦❞② ❢❡❛t✉r❡s✳ ❚❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ✐ss✉❡ ✇✐t❤ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛ ♠❡s♦♠♦r♣❤ ✐s t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❛r❡ r❡str✐❝t❡❞ ✐♥ ②♦✉r st②❧❡s✲ s✉❝❤ tr❡♥❞② t❤✐♥❣s ❛s ●♦t❤ ❛♥❞ ❊♠♦ ❛r❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡❧② ♦✉t ♦❢ ②♦✉r r❛♥❣❡✳ • ❊♥❞♦♠♦r♣❤s ■❢ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛ ▼❡s♦♠♦r♣❤ ✐s ✇✐♥♥✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❣❡♥❡ ❧♦tt❡r②✱ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛♥ ❊♥❞♦♠♦r♣❤ ✐s ❧♦s✐♥❣ ✐t✳ ❊♥❞♦♠♦r♣❤s ❛r❡ ②♦✉r ♥❛t✉r❛❧❧② ❢❛t ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✲ ❜♦❞② t②♣❡s t❤❛t✱ ❢♦r ♦♥❡ r❡❛s♦♥ ♦r ❛♥♦t❤❡r✱ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ♥❛st② t❡♥❞❡♥❝② t♦ ♣✉t ♦♥ ♣♦✉♥❞s ❛t t❤❡ ❞r♦♣ ♦❢ ❛ ❤❛t✳ ❚❤❡② ❛r❡✱ ✐r♦♥✐❝❛❧❧②✱ ❝❧♦s❡ ❜r♦t❤❡rs ✇✐t❤ ▼❡s♦♠♦r♣❤s ✐♥ t❤❛t t❤❡ ❜♦❞② t②♣❡ ❝❛♥ ❜✉✐❧❞ ♠✉s❝❧❡ q✉✐❝❦❧②✲ ❜✉t t❤❛t ♠✉s❝❧❡ ✐s ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❛❝❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ✉♥s✐❣❤t❧② ❢❛t✳ ❚❤✐♥❦ ♦❢ ❏❛❝❦ ❇❧❛❝❦ ♦r ❏♦❤♥ ●♦♦❞♠❛♥ ✲ t❤❛t ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❝❤✉❜❜②✳ ❇✉t✱ ✇♦rr② ♥♦t ✲ ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ ✐t ♦r ♥♦t✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦s❡♥ ✉♣ ②♦✉r ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐t② ❛♥❞ ❣❡t t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❜❡❛t ♦✉t ❛♥② ▼❡s♦♠♦r♣❤ ♦r ❊❝t♦♠♦r♣❤ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❡✈❡♥ ❧✐❢t✐♥❣ ❛ ✜♥❣❡r✳ ❖♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❞❡❝✐❞❡❞ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❛❜♦✈❡✱ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❛❧r❡❛❞② ❤❛✈❡ ❛♥ ✐❞❡❛ ♦❢ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛♥❞ ❝❛♥♥♦t ❞♦✳ ▼❡s♦♠♦r♣❤s s❤♦✉❧❞ ✐♠♠❡❞✐❛t❡❧② ❜❡❣✐♥ ❢♦❝✉s✐♥❣ ♦♥ ✇❡✐❣❤t tr❛✐♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❜✉✐❧❞✐♥❣ ✉♣ t❤❡✐r ❜♦❞② ✲ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ✐❢ t❤❡② ❞♦ ♥♦t✱ t❤❡② ❝❛♥ ❣❡t ♣✉❞❣② ❛♥❞ ❢❛t✳ ❊❝t♦♠♦r♣❤s s❤♦✉❧❞ ❧♦♦❦ ✐♥t♦ t❛❦✐♥❣ ❛❞✈❛♥t❛❣❡ ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ❧❛❝❦ ♦❢ ❛♥② ❤❡❛✈② ✇❡✐❣❤t✱ ❛♥❞ tr② t♦ ✇❡❛r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❧♦♦❦s ❣♦♦❞ ♦♥ t❤❡♠✳ ❊♥❞♦♠♦r♣❤s✱ ❛s ■ ♠❡♥t✐♦♥❡❞ ❛❜♦✈❡✱ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❢♦❝✉s ♦♥ ❧♦♦s❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ r❡❧❛①❡❞ ✜t ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ t❤✐♥❣s t❤❛t ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ♣❛rt② ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❣✉②✳ ✷✳✸ ❙❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ❢♦r ■❞❡❛s ❙♦✱ ❤♦♣❡❢✉❧❧② ❜② ♥♦✇✱ ②♦✉ ❛t ❧❡❛st ❤❛✈❡ t❤✐s ❛❜str❛❝t ✈✐s✐♦♥ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❤❡❛❞ ♦❢ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❜❡✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❛t✬s ♥♦t ❣♦♦❞ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ t♦ ❥✉st✐❢② ✇❤✐♣♣✐♥❣ ♦✉t ②♦✉r ✇❛❧❧❡t t♦ ❣❡t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ❲❤❛t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ✐s ✐♥s♣✐r❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ✐❞❡❛s✳ ❆♥❞ ②♦✉✬r❡ r✐❣❤t ♦♥ ②♦✉r t♦♣ s♦✉r❝❡✿ t❤❡ ✐♥t❡r❜✉tt✳ ❚❤❡ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ✐s ❛ ❣r❡❛t s♦✉r❝❡ ❢♦r st②❧❡ ✐❞❡❛s ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣❡t ❛✇❛② ✇✐t❤ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❡✈❡r②✇❤❡r❡ ❢♦r ✐❞❡❛s ❛♥❞ ♥♦t s♣❡♥❞ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ t✐♠❡ ❞♦✐♥❣ ✐t✳ ❆ ❣r❡❛t ♣❧❛❝❡ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❢♦r st②❧❡ ✐❞❡❛s ✐s✱ ✐r♦♥✐❝❛❧❧②✱ t❡❧❡✈✐s✐♦♥ ❝❤❛♥♥❡❧ ✇❡❜s✐t❡s✳ ❋♦r t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ ✉s ✐♥ t❤❡ ❯♥✐t❡❞ ❙t❛t❡s ♦❢ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛✱ ✇❡ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❢❡✇ ❦❡② ♣❧❛❝❡s ✇❡ ❝❛♥ ❝❤❡❝❦ ❛r♦✉♥❞✿ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳♠t✈✳❝♦♠ • ▼❚❱ • ❋♦① ◆❡t✇♦r❦ • ◆❇❈ • ❇r❛✈♦ ❚❱ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❢♦①✳❝♦♠✴❤♦♠❡✳❤t♠ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳♥❜❝✳❝♦♠ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❜r❛✈♦t✈✳❝♦♠ P❡rs♦♥❛❧❧②✱ ■✬♠ t❤❡ ❜✐❣❣❡st ❢❛♥ ♦❢ ❇r❛✈♦ ❚❱✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ s✐♠♣❧❡ r❡❛s♦♥✲ ✐t t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ t❤❡ ♠♦st st②❧❡✲❝♦♥s❝✐♦✉s✳ ❇r❛✈♦ ❚❱ ✐s ❛ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ♠♦❞❡r♥ ❨❯PP■❊ t❡❧❡✈✐s✐♦♥ st❛t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣❡t ❛♥ ✐❞❡❛ ♦❢ t❤♦s❡ ♥❡✇ ❝✐t② ❢❛s❤✐♦♥ tr❡♥❞s✳ ▼❚❱ t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ♣❧❛❝❡ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ✲ ❜✉t ♦❢ ❝♦✉rs❡✱ t❤❡ ❝❛t❝❤ t♦ ✐t ❜❡✐♥❣ t❤❛t t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ s❤♦✇♥ ✐♥ t❤❡✐r s❤♦✇s ❜❡✐♥❣ ✐♠♠❛t✉r❡ ❛♥❞ ❞r❡ss✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡✇✐s❡✳ ❖❢ ❝♦✉rs❡✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❛ ❧♦t ♠♦r❡ ❞❡t❛✐❧❡❞✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ♣❧❛❝❡s ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣♦ ❢♦r str❛✐❣❤t ❤tt♣✿✴✴♠❡♥✳st②❧❡✳❝♦♠✴❣q ❛ ❣r❡❛t ♣❧❛❝❡ t♦ ❝❤❡❝❦ ♦✉t✳ ▼❡♥✬s ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳♠❡♥s❤❡❛❧t❤✳❝♦♠ ❛❧s♦ t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ ❛ ❣r❡❛t ♣❧❛❝❡ t♦ ✜♥❞ st②❧❡ t✐♣s✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ ❜♦t❤ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ♦✉t ❤❡❧♣✳ ❉❡♣❡♥❞✐♥❣ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ❛❣❡✱ ②♦✉ ♠❛② ✜♥❞ ●◗ ❍❡❛❧t❤ ▼❛❣❛③✐♥❡ ♠❛❣❛③✐♥❡s t❡♥❞ t♦ ❛✐♠ t♦ ✸✵✲s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s✱ t❤❡② ❞❡✜♥✐t❡❧② ❝❛♥ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ❛ ❤❡❛❞s ✉♣ ❛s t♦ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❞♦ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ♠❛t✉r❡ ❛♥❞ ❢❛s❤✐♦♥❛❜❧❡✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❛ ❢❡✇ ❦❡② q✉❡st✐♦♥s ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞ ❛s ②♦✉ ❜r♦✇s❡✳ ❚❤♦s❡ ❛r❡✿ • ✧❲✐❧❧ ■ ❧♦♦❦ ❣♦♦❞ ❧✐❦❡ t❤✐s❄✧ • ✧❉♦❡s t❤✐s ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ✐t ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ st②❧✐s❤ ❢♦r ❛ ❧♦♥❣ t✐♠❡❄✧ • ✧❲✐❧❧ t❤✐s ❛ttr❛❝t t❤❡ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❣✐r❧ ■ ✇♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ✐♥t❡r❡st❡❞ ✐♥❄✧ ❛♥❞ ♦❢ ❝♦✉rs❡✱ ✶✷ • ✧❈❛♥ ■ ❛✛♦r❞ t❤✐s ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ st②❧❡ ✇✐t❤♦✉t t❛❦✐♥❣ ❛ t❤✐r❞ ♠♦rt❣❛❣❡ ♦✉t ♦♥ ♠② ❤♦✉s❡❄✧ ❆♥❞ ♦♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ✜♥❞ ✐t✱ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❦♥♦✇✳ ❚r② t♦ r❡♠❡♠❜❡r t❤❛t s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ s❡❡ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡ ♠❛② ♥♦t ❧♦♦❦ ❣♦♦❞ ♦♥ ②♦✉✳ ◆♦♥❡t❤❡❧❡ss✱ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❛t ❧❡❛st ✜♥❞ ♦♥❡ ✐❞❡❛ ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ❛❜♦✈❡ ✇❡❜s✐t❡s✱ ❡✈❡♥ ✐❢ ✐t ✐s ✧■ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ✇♦r❦ t♦ ❞♦✧✳ ❆♥❞ t❤❛t✬s ❣♦♦❞✳ ✷✳✹ ❙❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❈❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❙❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❧✐❦❡ s❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❱✐❞❡♦ ●❛♠❡s ✲ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉✬r❡ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❜❡❢♦r❡❤❛♥❞ ❛♥❞ st✐❝❦ t♦ ②♦✉r ❣✉♥s✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ✇❛❧❦ ✐♥t♦ ❛ st♦r❡✱ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ❛t ❧❡❛st ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❢❡✇ t❤✐♥❣s ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞ ✲ ✇❤❛t st②❧❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r✱ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉✬r❡ s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❧❧② ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ t♦ ❜✉②✱ ❛♥❞ ❤♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✇✐❧❧✐♥❣ t♦ ♣❛② ❢♦r ✐t✳ ❙❡❡✱ ❛s ❣♦♦❞ ♦❧❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ✭❛♥❞ ♣r❡s✉♠❛❜❧② ♠❛❧❡✮✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥✬t ❛❧❧♦✇ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ t♦ ❜✉② s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ t❤❡♥ ♦♥❧② ❧❛t❡r r❡❛❧✐③❡ ②♦✉ ❢✉❝❦❡❞ ✉♣✳ ❋❛✐❧✉r❡ s✉❝❦s✳ ❙♦✱ ✇✐t❤ t❤❛t ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞✱ ❣❡t ❛♥ ✐❞❡❛ ♦❢ t❤❡ st♦r❡s t❤❛t ❛r❡ ❛✈❛✐❧❛❜❧❡ t♦ ②♦✉✳ ❙t♦r❡s ❞♦ ✐♥❞❡❡❞ s❡♥❞ ❛ ♠❡ss❛❣❡✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ ♠❡❄ • ❚❤❡ ●❛♣✿ ❚r❡♥❞②✱ ②❡t s✐♠♣❧❡ ❛♥❞ ❝❧❡❛♥✳ • ❍♦t ❚♦♣✐❝✿ ▼❛❧❧❣♦t❤ ❢❛❣❣♦ts✳ • ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤✿ ❘❡❛❧❧② tr❡♥❞② ❤✐❣❤ s❝❤♦♦❧❡r✴✉♥✐✈❡rs✐t② st✉❞❡♥t ✇✐t❤ ♥♦ s❡♥s❡ ♦❢ q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❚❤❡② ♦✇♥ ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r✱ t♦♦✱ s♦ ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ✐t✬s ❥✉st ❝❤❡❛♣❡r ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r st✉✛✳ • ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r✿ ❘❡❛❧❧② r✐❝❤ tr❡♥❞② ❤✐❣❤ s❝❤♦♦❧❡r✴✉♥✐✈❡rs✐t② st✉❞❡♥t✳ • ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❊❛❣❧❡✿ ❚r②✐♥❣ t♦ ❦❡❡♣ t❤❡ tr❡♥❞s ♦❢ ❆✫❋ ❛♥❞ ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r✱ ❜✉t t♦♦ ❝❤❡❛♣ t♦ ♣❛② t❤❡ ♣r✐❝❡ ❢♦r t❤❡ r❡❛❧ s❤✐t✳ • ❆❡r♦♣♦st❛❧❡✿ ❖♥❡ st❡♣ ❛❜♦✈❡ ❖❧❞ ◆❛✈②✳ • ❖❧❞ ◆❛✈②✿ ❚❤❡ ●❛♣✱ ❡①❝❡♣t ♠✉❝❤ ❝❤❡❛♣❡r ❛♥❞ ♠✉❝❤ ♠♦r❡ ❣❡♥❡r✐❝✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ✇❤❛t ❡✈❡r② s✐♥❣❧❡ ♠♦t❤❡r ❜✉②s ❤❡r ✶✷ ②❡❛r ♦❧❞✳ • ❊❞❞✐❡ ❇❛✉❡r✿ ▼♦r❡ ❝♦♥s❡r✈❛t✐✈❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❣♦♦❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❧♦♦❦✳ • ▲❛♥❞s ❊♥❞✿ ❉❡❝❡♥t st✉✛✱ ♠♦r❡ ♦✉t❞♦♦rs②✳ ◆♦✇❛❞❛②s✱ ✐t✬s ✇❛② ♦✈❡r❜♦❛r❞ ❛♥❞ t❛❝❦②✳ • ❚❤❡ ◆♦rt❤ ❋❛❝❡✿ ❉✉♠❜❛ss ❝♦❛ts✳ ❉✉♠❜❛ss ❝♦❛ts✳ ❉✉♠❜❛ss ❝♦❛ts✳ ❨♦✉ s❡❡✱ ❡✈❡♥ t❤❡ ♥❛♠❡✴❜r❛♥❞ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇❡❛r s❡♥❞s ❛ ♠❡ss❛❣❡✳ ■t✬s ♥♦t t❤❡ ♠❡ss❛❣❡ ♦❢ ❲❍❖ ②♦✉ s❤♦♣♣❡❞ ❛t✲ ✐t ✐s ❧✐t❡r❛❧❧② t❤❡ st②❧❡ t❤❛t t❤❡② ❝❛rr②✳ ❲❡❛r✐♥❣ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❢r♦♠ ❍♦t ❚♦♣✐❝ ✐s t❤❡ ♣♦❧❛r ♦♣♣♦s✐t❡ ♦❢ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❢r♦♠ ❖❧❞ ◆❛✈②✱ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ❤♦✇ ②♦✉ t✇✐st ✐t✳ ■ s✉♣♣♦s❡ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ t❤✐♥❣ ❝♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ s❛✐❞ ❛❜♦✉t ▲♦✉✐s ❱✉✐tt♦♥ ❛♥❞ ●✐♦r❣✐♦ ❆r♠❛♥✐✱ ❜✉t ✇❡✬r❡ ❛❧❧ t♦♦ ♣♦♦r ❢♦r t❤❛t s❤✐t✳ ❨♦✉✬r❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❧♦st ❜② ♥♦✇✳ ❚r✉st ♠❡✱ ♥♦✲♦♥❡ ✐♥ t❤❡✐r r✐❣❤t ♠✐♥❞ ❜❡s✐❞❡s s♦♠❡ s♦rt ♦❢ ❣♦❞❧② ❢❛s❤✐♦♥ ❝♦❧✉♠♥✐st ❝❛♥ ✜❣✉r❡ t❤✐s s❤✐t ♦✉t✳ ❆❧❧ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❞♦ ✐s ✇❛❧❦ ✐♥t♦ ❛♥② st♦r❡ ❛♥❞ ❧♦♦❦ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ❛♥❞ ❣❡t ❛♥ ✐❞❡❛ ♦❢ ✇❤❛t✬s ❣♦✐♥❣ ♦♥ ✐♥s✐❞❡✳ ❍❡❧❧✱ ❝❤❡❝❦ ♦✉t t❤❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❜r♦✇s✐♥❣ ✐♥s✐❞❡ ✲ t❤❡② ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❛r❡ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ s♦♠❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❛❧r❡❛❞②✱ ♦r ❛t ❧❡❛st ✇❛♥t t♦ ❜❡ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ✐t✳ ❙✉♣❡r ❈♦♦❧ ❚r✐❝❦ ★✶✷✶ ❆t t❤✐s ♣♦✐♥t✱ ②♦✉ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ✇❛♥t ❛♥ ❡❛s② ✇❛② t♦ ❣❡t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❤❛✈✐♥❣ t♦ ❞❡❛❧ ✇✐t❤ ❛❧❧ ♦❢ t❤✐s ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❜✉❧❧s❤✐t✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛♥ ❡❛s② ✇❛② t♦ ❞♦ t❤✐s ✲ r❡❧② ♦♥ ❝❤✐❝❦s✳ ❨❡s✱ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧②✱ ✇♦♠❡♥ t❡♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ t❤❡ ❜❡st ♣❡♦♣❧❡ t♦ ❞❡❢❡r t♦ ♦♥ t❤❡s❡ s✉❜❥❡❝ts✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡② ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ✜❣✉r❡ ♦✉t ✇❤❛t ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❜❡tt❡r ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❣✐r❧❢r✐❡♥❞ ✭♦r ❛ ❣✐r❧ ✇❤♦ ✐s ❥✉st ❛ ❢r✐❡♥❞✮✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❞❡✜♥✐t❡❧② ❛s❦ t❤❡♠✳ ❇✉t ❤❡②✱ ②♦✉ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❞♦♥✬t✳ ❚❤❛t ✐s ✇❤❡r❡ ②♦✉ ❣❡t ✉♣ ②♦✉r ❜❛❧❧s ❛♥❞ s❤♦✇ ♦✛ s♦♠❡ t❡st♦st❡r♦♥❡✳ ❲❡❛r ❞❡❝❡♥t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ♣r❡tt② r❡❛s♦♥❛❜❧❡✳ ❲❛❧❦ ✐♥t♦ ❛ st♦r❡ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❢❡♠❛❧❡ ❡♠♣❧♦②❡❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❞✐r❡❝t❧② s❛② t♦ ❤❡r ✧❲❤❛t ❝♦✉❧❞ ■ ✇❡❛r t❤❛t ✇♦✉❧❞ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❞❛t❡ ♠❡❄✧✳ ❯♥❧❡ss s❤❡✬s ❜✉s② ♦r ❛ ❜✐t❝❤✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❣❡t ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❛♥s✇❡r✳ ❖r ❛ ♣❤♦♥❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❡✈❡♥ ❜❡tt❡r✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✺ ❲❡❛r✐♥❣ ❈❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❚❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❢❡✇ ✇❛②s ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❢✉❝❦ ✉♣ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ❜✉t ♥♦ ❞♦✉❜t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❧❡❛r♥ t❤❡♠✳ ❙♦♠❡ r✉❧❡s ✭s✉❝❤ ❛s ✧❲❤✐t❡ ❛❢t❡r ▲❛❜♦r ❉❛②✧✮ ❞♦ ♥♦t r❡❛❧❧② ❛♣♣❧② ❛♥②♠♦r❡✱ ✇❤✐❧❡ s♦♠❡ ✭✇❤✐t❡ s♦❝❦s ✇✐t❤ ❜r♦✇♥ s❤♦❡s✮ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❡ t♦ ❧✐✈❡ t♦ t❤✐s ❞❛②✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❛t ❜❡✐♥❣ s❛✐❞✱ t❤❡s❡ ❛r❡ ❥✉st t❤❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ r✉❧❡s ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ✇❤❡♥ ♣✐❝❦✐♥❣ ♦✉t ✧✇❤❛t t♦ ✇❡❛r✧✿ • ❆s ♠❡♥t✐♦♥❡❞ ❛❜♦✈❡✱ ◆♦ ✇❤✐t❡ s♦❝❦s ✇✐t❤ ❜r♦✇♥ s❤♦❡s✳ ❏✉st tr✉st ♠❡ ♦♥ t❤✐s ♦♥❡✳ • ❯♥❧❡ss ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ♦r s❡♠✐❢♦r♠❛❧ ✇❡❛r✱ ❞♦ ♥♦t t✉❝❦ ②♦✉r s❤✐rt ✐♥ ❡✈❡r✳ • ❉♦ ♥♦t ✇❡❛r ②♦✉r s✇❡❛t❡r ❛r♦✉♥❞ ②♦✉r ❤✐♣s✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ ❣❛②✳ • ❉♦ ♥♦t ✇❡❛r ❛ s❤✐rt ❛♥❞ ♣❛♥ts t❤❛t ♠❛t❝❤✳ • ◆❡✈❡r ✇❡❛r ❛ ❝❡❧❧ ♣❤♦♥❡ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ❜❡❧t✳ ❚❤❛t ✐s ❣❡❡❦② ❛♥❞ st✉♣✐❞✳ • ❯♥❧❡ss ②♦✉✬r❡ tr②✐♥❣ t♦ s❝❛r❡ ♦✛ ♣♦t❡♥t✐❛❧ ❞❛t❡s✱ ❞♦ ♥♦t ✇❡❛r ❛ r✐♥❣ ♦♥ t❤❡ t❤✐r❞ ✭r✐♥❣✮ ✜♥❣❡r ♦♥ ②♦✉r ❧❡❢t ❤❛♥❞✳ ❚❤❛t✬s ✇❤❡r❡ ♠❛rr✐❛❣❡ r✐♥❣s ❣♦✳ • ❯♥❧❡ss ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ♦♥ t❤❡ ❜❡❛❝❤ ♦r ✐♥ ❛ ✈❡r② r❡❧❛①❡❞ s❡tt✐♥❣✱ ❞♦ ♥♦t ✇❡❛r s❛♥❞❛❧s✳ • ❑❡❡♣ ❧❡❛t❤❡r s❤♦❡s ❝❧❡❛♥✳ ❇r♦✇♥ ❧❡❛t❤❡r s❤♦❡s ❛r❡ ❛✇❡s♦♠❡ ❛♥❞ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✉s❡❞ ❢♦r ❛ t♦♥ ♦❢ t❤✐♥❣s✱ ❜✉t t❤❡② ❣❡t ❞✐rt② ❡❛s✐❧②✳ • ❚❤✐s ✐s ♦❜✈✐♦✉s✿ ◆♦ ♣♦❝❦❡t ♣r♦t❡❝t♦rs✱ s✉s♣❡♥❞❡rs✱ ♦r ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ st❡r❡♦t②♣✐❝❛❧❧② ❣❡❡❦②✳ • ❚❤✐s ✐s ❧❡ss ♦❜✈✐♦✉s✿ ❚r② t♦ ✇❡❛r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ♦t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ❛ t✲s❤✐rt ❛♥❞ ❛ ♣❛✐r ♦❢ ♣❛♥ts✳ • ■ ✇✐❧❧ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧❧② ❦✐❧❧ ②♦✉ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❡❛r ②♦✉r ❜❛s❡❜❛❧❧ ❤❛t ❜❛❝❦✇❛r❞s✳ • ❖♥ t❤❡ t♦♣✐❝ ♦❢ ❤❛ts✱ ❤❛ts ❛r❡ t♦ ❜❡ ✇♦r♥ s♣❛r✐♥❣❧②✱ ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ tr✉❝❦❡r✳ • ❖❤✱ s♣❡❛❦✐♥❣ ♦❢ tr✉❝❦❡rs✱ tr✉❝❦❡r ❤❛ts ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ▼❚❱ t♦♦❧✱ ❜✉t t❤❡② ❞♦ ✜t ✐♥ s♦♠❡ ❝❛s❡s✳ • ❇❡❧ts s❤♦✉❧❞ ♥❡✈❡r ❜❡ t✐❣❤t❡r t❤❛♥ t❤❡ ♣❛♥ts ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ♦♥✳ ❇✉② ✜tt✐♥❣ ♣❛♥ts✳ • ❉♦ ♥♦t ❡✈❡r ✇❡❛r ❛ ❍❛✇❛✐✐❛♥ s❤✐rt ❛♥❞ ❛ ✉♥❞❡rs❤✐rt✴t❛♥❦ t♦♣✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛♥ ✐❞✐♦t✳ • ❙✇❡❛t♣❛♥ts ❛♥❞ s❧❡❡♣✇❡❛r ❛r❡ ♦♥❧② ❢♦r ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ ❛♥❞ s❧❡❡♣✐♥❣✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❡❧②✳ ●✐r❧s ❛♥❞ ❣✉②s ✇❤♦ t❤✐♥❦ ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡ ❛r❡ ✐❣♥♦r❛♥t✳ • ❲❡❛r ✇❤❛t ②♦✉✬r❡ ❞♦✐♥❣✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❛ ❞❛t❡✱ ❞r❡ss s❡♠✐✲❢♦r♠❛❧ ②❡t r❡❧❛①❡❞✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❛ ❝♦♥❝❡rt✱ ❜❛♥❞ t✲s❤✐rts ❛r❡ ❛❝❝❡♣t❛❜❧❡ ✭❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❞♦ ♥♦t ❜❡ t❤❡ t♦♦❧ t❤❛t s❤♦✇s ✉♣ t♦ ❛ ❝♦♥❝❡rt ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛ s❤✐rt ❢♦r t❤❡ ❜❛♥❞ ♣❧❛②✐♥❣✱ t❤❛t ✐s ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❧❛♠❡✮✳ ❏✉st s❝❛❧❡ ✉♣ ♦r ❞♦✇♥ ❞❡♣❡♥❞✐♥❣ ♦♥ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ♣❧❛♥ t♦ ❞♦ t❤❛t ❞❛②✳ • ❊♥❞♦♠♦r♣❤s✱ ✇❡❛r ❛♥ ✉♥❞❡rs❤✐rt✱ ❛♥❞ t✉❝❦ ✐t ✐♥✳ ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ❞♦❡s t❤✐s ♠❛❦❡ ❧♦♦s❡ ✜tt✐♥❣✲❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ s❡❡♠ ❛s ✐♥t❡♥❞❡❞ ✭❧♦♦s❡✲✜tt✐♥❣✮✱ ✐t ❛❧s♦ ♣r❡✈❡♥ts s❡✈❡r❛❧ ♠❛❥♦r s♦❝✐❛❧✲❞❡❛t❤tr❛♣s✳ ▼♦t✐♦♥ ✐s ❝♦♥t❛✐♥❡❞ ✇✐t❤✐♥ t❤❡ ✉♥❞❡rs❤✐rt✱ s♦ ✧❥✐❣❣❧✐♥❣✧ ✐s ♥♦ ❧♦♥❣❡r ❛ ♠♦rt✐❢②✐♥❣ ✐ss✉❡✳ ◆✐♣♣❧❡s ❛r❡ ❤✐❞❞❡♥ ❛s ✇❡❧❧✱ t❤♦✉❣❤ ②♦✉ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② s❤♦✉❧❞♥✬t ❜❡ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛ ❚✲s❤✐rt t❤❛t t✐❣❤t ✐♥ t❤❡ ✜rst ♣❧❛❝❡✳ ❚✉❝❦✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤❡ ✉♥❞❡rs❤✐rt ✭♥♦t t❤❡ ♦✈❡rs❤✐rt✱ ✉♥❧❡ss ❢♦r♠❛❧✮ ❛❧s♦ ❦❡❡♣s ②♦✉r ❛ss✲❝r❛❝❦ ✉♥s❡❡♥ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❜❡♥❞ ♦✈❡r✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❢♦r❣❡t t♦ r❡✲t✉❝❦ ②♦✉r ✉♥❞❡rs❤✐rt ❛❢t❡r st♦♣s t♦ t❤❡ r❡str♦♦♠✱ ♦r ✐❢ ②♦✉ st❛rt ❢❡❡❧✐♥❣ ❛ ❞r❛❢t✳ ✷✳✺✳✶ ❙✉✐ts ✶✵✶ ❯♥❧❡ss ②♦✉ ✐♥t❡♥❞ t♦ ✇♦r❦ ❛s ❛ ❣❛s st❛t✐♦♥ ❛ss✐st❛♥t t❤❡ r❡st ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❧✐❢❡✱ t✐♠❡s ✇✐❧❧ ❝♦♠❡ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ✇❡❛r ❛ s✉✐t✳ ❆ s✉✐t ✐s t❤❡ ✇❡st❡r♥ ✇♦r❧❞✬s ✇❛② ♦❢ s✐❣♥✐❢②✐♥❣ ❜✉s✐♥❡ss ❛♥❞ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧✐s♠ ✲ ❛♥❞ ✐t✬s ❜❡❝♦♠❡ s♦ ♣♦♣✉❧❛r t❤❛t t❤❡ ✇❤♦❧❡ ✇♦r❧❞ ♦♣❡r❛t❡s ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ s✉✐ts✳ ❲❡ ❝♦✉❧❞ ✐♥❞❡❡❞ ❜❡ ❛❧❧ ✇♦r❦✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤♦♥❣s ❛♥❞ ♠✉s❝❧❡ s❤✐rts ❜✉t s✉✐ts ❛r❡ t❤❡ ♣r❡❢❡rr❡❞ ♠♦❞❡ ♦❢ ❢❛s❤✐♦♥✳ ✶✹ ❘✉❧❡s ♦❢ ❙✉✐ts ❆♥❞ s✉✐ts ❤❛✈❡ r✉❧❡s✳ ❆ s✉✐t✱ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❢❡❞♦r❛✱ ❤❛s ❛❜♦✉t t❤r❡❡ ❜✐❧❧✐♦♥ ✇❛②s ✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ✇❡❛r ✐t ❛♥❞ ❧♦♦❦ st✉♣✐❞✱ ❛♥❞ ❛❜♦✉t ✶✵✵ ✇❛②s ✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❧♦♦❦ ❞❡❝❡♥t✳ ❚❤✐s ❧✐♠✐ts ②♦✉r ♦♣t✐♦♥s t♦ ❡✐t❤❡r ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣ s❡t tr❡♥❞s ❛♥❞ ✐❞❡❛s ❛♥❞ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞✱ ♦r ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡ ❞✐♣s❤✐t ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ❡✈❡r②♦♥❡ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ♦✣❝❡✴♣❛rt②✴✇❤❛t❡✈❡r ❧❛✉❣❤ ❛t ②♦✉✳ ❙♦✱ ✇✐t❤ t❤❛t ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞✱ ❢♦❧❧♦✇ t❤❡s❡ t✐♣s ❢♦r s❛❢❡t②✳ • ❙t❛② ❝♦♥s❡r✈❛t✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ ❝❧❛ss✐❝✳ ❖❜✈✐♦✉s❧② t❤✐s ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ st✐❝❦ t♦ t❤❡ ❜❛s✐❝s ♦❢ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ❲❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡❧② ♦✉t ♦❢ ❢❛s❤✐♦♥ ♦r ♦❞❞ ✇✐❧❧ ✐♠♠❡❞✐❛t❡❧② ❜r❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ❛s ❛♥ ✐❞✐♦t✱ s♦ t❤✐s ✐s ②♦✉r ❜❛s✐❝ ♠❡t❤♦❞ ♦❢ ✧❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞✧✳ ❋✐♥❞ ❛ ❜❧❛❝❦ s✉✐t t❤❛t ✜ts ②♦✉ ❛♥❞ ❛❝❝❡♥t✉❛t❡s ②♦✉r ❜♦❞②✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ♣r❡tt② ♠✉❝❤ s❡t ✐♥ t❤✐s r❡❛❧♠✲ str❛②✐♥❣ ❢r♦♠ ✐t ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❛t ②♦✉r ❞✐s❝r❡t✐♦♥✱ ❜✉t t❤❡ ♣❧❛✐♥ ❜❧❛❝❦ s✉✐t ✐s ❛♥ ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t②✳ • ❆ s✉✐t ✐s ♥♦t ❛ t✉①❡❞♦✱ t❤✉s tr② t♦ st❛② ❛✇❛② ❢r♦♠ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❣❡❛r❡❞ ❛s s✉❝❤✳ • ❚❤r❡❡ ♦r t✇♦ ❜✉tt♦♥s ✐s ♦♣t✐♠❛❧✳ ❚❤r❡❡ ✐s ♦♥❧② ❣♦♦❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ t❛❧❧ ♦r t❤✐♥✱ t✇♦ ✐s ❜❡st ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛ ❜✐t r♦✉♥❞✳ ❆s❦ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ✐♥ ❛ ▼❡♥✬s ❙✉✐t ❉❡♣❛rt♠❡♥t ❢♦r ❤❡❧♣ ♦♥ t❤✐s ♦♥❡✳ • ❚❤❡ ❧❛♣❡❧s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❥❛❝❦❡t s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ✲ t♦♦ ❧♦♥❣ ♠❛❦❡s ✐t ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❧❡✐s✉r❡ s✉✐t✱ t♦♦ s❤♦rt ✐s ✈❡r② str❛♥❣❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ♠❡❛s✉r❡♠❡♥t✱ ❣♦ ❣r❛❜ ❛ st❛♥❞❛r❞ ▼❛❧❡✬s s✐③❡❞ t✐❡ ❛♥❞ ♣✉t ✐t ✉♣ ❛❣❛✐♥st t❤❡ ❧❛♣❡❧s✲ t❤❡② s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❛r♦✉♥❞ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❧❡♥❣t❤✳ • ❚❤❡ t②♣✐❝❛❧ s✉✐t ❝♦❛t ❤❛s ❛ ✈❡♥t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❜❛❝❦ ✭❛❜♦✉t ❛ ✶✵ ✐♥❝❤ ❧♦♥❣ ❝✉t ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✮ t❤❛t ❛❧❧♦✇s ❢♦r ②♦✉r ❜❛❝❦✱ ❛♠♦♥❣ ♦t❤❡r t❤✐♥❣s✳ ❙♦♠❡ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t s✉✐ts ❞♦ ♥♦t ❢❡❛t✉r❡ t❤✐s✳ ▼❛❦❡ s✉r❡ t♦ ❝❤❡❝❦ ❛♥❞ t❡st ✇❤✐❝❤ ②♦✉ ♣r❡❢❡r ♠♦r❡ ✲ ✈❡♥ts s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s ❛❧❧♦✇ t❤❡ s✉✐t t♦ ♣✉✛ ✉♣✱ ❜✉t ❛♥ ✉♥❝✉t ❥❛❝❦❡t ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✉♥❝♦♠❢♦rt❛❜❧❡ t♦ s♦♠❡ ❜♦❞② t②♣❡s✳ ❖❤✱ ❛♥❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✇♦♥❞❡r✐♥❣✱ t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ❍♦❧❧②✇♦♦❞ ❣♦❡s ✇✐t❤♦✉t t❤❡♠ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ s✉✐ts ❧❡ss ✈❡♥ts ❛r❡ ♠♦r❡ ♣❤♦t♦❣❡♥✐❝✳ • ❙♦♠❡ ❜❧❛❝❦ s✉✐ts t❡♥❞ t♦ ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♦❞❞ ❢❛❜r✐❝s✱ s✉❝❤ ❛s ❤❡❛✈✐❡r ✇❡❛✈❡s✳ ❆✈♦✐❞ t❤✐s✱ ❛s t❤❡② ❛r❡ ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ♠✐s♣❧❛❝❡❞ ✐♥ ♠❛♥② ❡♥s❡♠❜❧❡s✱ ❜✉t t❤❡② ❛❧s♦ ❛r❡ ❛ ♣❛✐♥ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❛ss t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ❝❧❡❛♥ ❛♥❞ ❞r②✲❝❧❡❛♥ t❤❡♠✳ • ❆ ❧♦t ♦❢ ❛ s✉✐t ✐s t❤❡ ❛❜✐❧✐t② t♦ ❛❝❝❡♥t✉❛t❡ t❤❡ ✉♣♣❡r ❜♦❞② ❛♥❞ s❧✐♠ t❤❡ ❧♦✇❡r✳ ❆ ❙❯■❚ ❖❋❋ ❚❍❊ ❘❆❈❑ ❉❖ ◆❖❚ ❙■▼P▲❨ ❇❯❨ ✳ ▼♦st s✉✐t st♦r❡s ♥♦✇ ❝♦♠❡ ✇✐t❤ ❝❤❡❛♣ ✭♦r ❝♦♠♣❧✐♠❡♥t❛r②✮ s✉✐t t❛✐❧♦r✐♥❣✳ ❯s❡ ✐t✳ • ❚❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ ❞❡❜❛t❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❛❜♦✉t ✐❢ ♠❡♥ s❤♦✉❧❞ ✇❡❛r ❜❡❧ts ✇✐t❤ s✉✐ts✳ ■♥ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✱ t❤❡ ❤✐st♦r✐❝❛❧ t❤✐♥❣ ❤❛s ❜❡❡♥ t♦ ✇❡❛r ❜❡❧ts✱ t❤✉s ✐t ✐s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉ t♦ ❞♦ s♦✳ ▼✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❧❡✐s✉r❡ s✉✐ts✱ ❢❛❞s ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡s❡ t❡♥❞ t♦ ❞✐❡ ♦✉t✳ • ❙✉✐ts ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝❡❞ ✐♥ t✇♦ ✇❛②s ✲ ❜❡✐♥❣ s❡✇♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❣❧✉❡❞✳ ❆s❦ ✲ ❣❧✉❡❞ s✉✐ts ✭❣❧✉❡ ❜❡✐♥❣ ✉s❡❞ t♦ ❤♦❧❞ ❢❛❜r✐❝ t♦❣❡t❤❡r✮ ❛r❡ ❍❖❘❘■❇▲❊✱ ❛♥❞ ❢❛❧❧ ❛♣❛rt ❡❛s✐❧②✳ ■❣♥♦r❡ ✇❤❛t t❤❡ ♠❛♥ ❛t t❤❡ ❝♦✉♥t❡r s❛②s ❛❜♦✉t ✧❛❞✈❛♥❝❡❞ ♥❡✇ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s✧ ✲ ❣❧✉❡ ✐♥ ❛ s✉✐t ✐s ❛s ♥❛t✉r❛❧ ❛s ②♦✉r ♣❡♥✐s ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❛ss❤♦❧❡✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❞♦ ✐t✳ ❆♥❞ ✇❤✐❧❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛t ✐t✱ ❝❤❡❝❦ t❤❡ ❧❡♥❣t❤s ♦❢ ❛❧❧ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ❦❡② t❤✐♥❣s✿ • ❚❤❡ ❧❡♥❣t❤ ♦❢ t❤❡ s❧❡❡✈❡ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❤♦❧❞ ♦✉t ❛♥❞ ❜❡♥❞ ②♦✉r ❛r♠ ✭❛s ✐❢ ❤♦❧❞✐♥❣ ✐t ♦✉t t♦ ❛ ❧❛❞②✮✳ ■t s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❧♦♥❣ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ t♦ ❝♦✈❡r ②♦✉r ✇r✐st✱ ❜✉t ♣♦ss✐❜❧② ❡①♣♦s❡ ❛ ❜✐t ♦❢ ✇❛t❝❤ ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✲ ♥♦t❤✐♥❣ ♠♦r❡✳ • ❚❤❡ ❧❡♥❣t❤ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❛❝t✉❛❧ ❝♦❛t ✐ts❡❧❢✳ ■t s❤♦✉❧❞ ❝♦♠❡ ❞♦✇♥ t♦ ❛❜♦✉t ②♦✉r ❤✐♣s✳ • ❚❤❡ ❞r❛♣❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❢❛❜r✐❝ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❜❛❝❦✳ ❚❤❡r❡ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❇❊ ♥♦ ❞r❛♣❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ s❡❡ ❛♥② ✇r✐♥❦❧❡s ✐♥ t❤❡ ❜❛❝❦✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠✳ • ❚❤❡ ❢❛❜r✐❝ ✉♥❞❡r ②♦✉r ❛r♠s✳ ❚❤✐s✱ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ②♦✉r ❜❛❝❦✱ s❤♦✉❧❞ ♥❡✈❡r ❤❛✈❡ ✇r✐♥❦❧❡s t❤❛t ❝♦♠❡ ❢r♦♠ ❜❡✐♥❣ str❡t❝❤❡❞ ♦r ♣✉❧❧❡❞✳ ❙✉✐ts s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❆❚ ▲❊❆❙❚ ✩✷✵✵ ♦r ♠♦r❡ ❢♦r t❤❡♠ t♦ ❜❡ ♦❢ ❛♥② r❡❛s♦♥❛❜❧❡ q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ●♦♦❞ t❛✐❧♦r❡❞ s✉✐ts ✭t❤❡ ♦♥❡s t❤❛t t❡♥❞ t♦ ❧❛st t❤❡ ❧♦♥❣❡st✮ ❝❛♥ ❣♦ ❢r♦♠ ✩✶✱✵✵✵ ❛♥❞ ❛❜♦✈❡✳ ❉♦♥✬t ✇♦rr② ❛❜♦✉t tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ♣✐❝❦ ✉♣ ❛♥ ❆r♠❛♥✐ s✉✐t ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✱ t❤❡② t❡♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s ♥♦ ❜❡tt❡r t❤❛♥ ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ s✉✐ts✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❥♦❡ ✭❡✳❣✿ ②♦✉✮ ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡✈❡r ♥❡❡❞ ✐t✱ t❤❡ t♦♣ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧✐♥❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠♦♥❛❧❧② ❞❡t❡st t❤✐s ❧♦♦❦ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ✐t t❡♥❞s t♦ s❤♦✇ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ❢❛t ♦♥ ✉❣❧② ❣✉②s✱ ❜✉t s❦✐♥♥② ❣✉②s ❝❛♥ ♣✉❧❧ ✐t ♦✛✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❥♦❡ ✭❡❣✿ ②♦✉✮ ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡✈❡r ♥❡❡❞ ✐t✱ t❤❡ t♦♣ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧✐♥❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠❛r❦❡t ❛t t❤❡ ❣✐✈❡♥ ♠♦♠❡♥t ✐s ❍✉❣♦ ❇♦ss✱ ✇❤♦ ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ♠♦rt❣❛❣❡ ②♦✉r ❤♦✉s❡ t♦ ❛✛♦r❞ ❤✐s ❞❡s✐❣♥s✳ ✶✺ ✷✳✺✳✷ ❲❤❡r❡ ❛♥❞ ❲❤❡♥ t♦ ❲❡❛r ❛ ❙✉✐t ❖♥❡ ❧❛st t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❦♥♦✇ ✐s t❤❛t ❛ s✉✐t ✐s ❛ ♣♦✇❡r❢✉❧ ✇❡❛♣♦♥ ✐♥ st②❧❡✳ ❙✉✐ts ❛r❡ ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ✇❡❛r ❢♦r ♠❡♥ ♦❢ ♣♦✇❡r✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡② ❤❛✈❡ t❤✉s ❝❛rr✐❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡♠ ❛ ♠❛❥❡st②✱ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ t❛♣ ✐♥t♦ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❡❛r t❤❡♠ r✐❣❤t✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ✇❡❛r ❛ s✉✐t t♦ ❛ ❝❛r ❞❡❛❧❡rs❤✐♣✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❥✉♠♣❡❞ ✉♣♦♥ ✲ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛ ❤♦♦❞✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❥❡❛♥s ✇✐❧❧ ❣❡t ②♦✉ ✐❣♥♦r❡❞✳ ❆ s✉✐t ✇✐❧❧ ✐♥st❛♥t❧② ❛ttr❛❝t ✇♦♠❡♥ ❛s ❧♦♥❣ ❛s ②♦✉ ✇❡❛r ✐t r✐❣❤t✳ P❡♦♣❧❡ ✇✐❧❧ tr❡❛t ②♦✉ ❜❡tt❡r✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ ♠♦r❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♥♦ ❞♦✉❜t ❝❛rr② ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❜❡tt❡r✳ ❇✉t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❥✉st ❛s q✉✐❝❦❧② ❢✉❝❦ ✉♣ ✇❤❡r❡ t♦ ✇❡❛r ❛ s✉✐t✳ ❲❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛ s✉✐t ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❜❡tt❡r ❞♦♥❡ ✐♥ ❛ ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ♣❧❛❝❡ ✭♣♦ss✐❜❧② ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❛ t✐❡✱ ❝♦❧❧❛r ♦♣❡♥✮ r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ✐♥ s♦♠❡ ❝♦r♣♦r❛t❡ s✐t✉❛t✐♦♥s ✭s✐♥❝❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ♦❜s❡ss ❛❜♦✉t ❜❡✐♥❣ t❤❡✐r ❝✉st♦♠❡r✬s ❢✉❝❦❜✉❞❞② ♥♦✇❛❞❛②s✮✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❤❡s✐t❛t❡ t♦ ✇❡❛r ❛ s✉✐t ❛r♦✉♥❞ ✐♥ ♣✉❜❧✐❝✱ ❛s ✐t ✇✐❧❧ ❣❡t ②♦✉ ❛tt❡♥t✐♦♥✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐♥ s♦♠❡ s✐t✉❛t✐♦♥s ✭s✉❝❤ ❛s ✇♦r❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r s♦♠❡ ❝❛r ❞❡❛❧❡rs❤✐♣s✱ P❘ ❞❡♣❛rt♠❡♥ts✱ ❛♥❞ ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ❛♥② ❜✉❞❞②✲❜✉❞❞② ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛t✐♦♥✮✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❜❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ ✧st✉✛②✧ ❢♦r ✐t✳ ❙♦ ♣❧❛② ✐t ❝❛r❡❢✉❧❧②✱ ❛s ②♦✉ ♥❡✈❡r ❦♥♦✇ ✇❤❛t ✇✐❧❧ ❝♦♠❡ ♥❡①t✳ ❚❤❡ ✇❛② t♦ t✉r♥ ♦♥❡ s✉✐t ✐♥t♦ ❛ ✇❤♦❧❡ ✇❡❡❦ ♦❢ ✇❡❛r • ❲❡❛r ✐t ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❛ t✐❡✳ ❈♦❧❧❛r ♦♣❡♥✱ s✉✐t ❡✐t❤❡r ❝❧♦s❡❞ ♦r ♦♣❡♥✳ ❚❤✐s ❣✐✈❡s t❤❡ ❛❧❧✉s✐♦♥ ♦❢ r❡❧❛①❡❞♥❡ss✲ t✐❡s ❛r❡ t❤❡ ✉❧t✐♠❛t❡ ✐♥ st✉✛② t♦ s♦♠❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ • ❲❡❛r t❤❡ s✉✐t ❥❛❝❦❡t ✇✐t❤ ❥❡❛♥s✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❛ ❦✐❝❦❛ss ✇❛② t♦ ❣♦ ♦♥ ❛ ❞❛t❡✳ • ●♦ ✇✐t❤♦✉t t❤❡ s✉✐t ❥❛❝❦❡t✱ ✇❡❛r t❤❡ ♣❛♥ts ❛♥❞ t❤❡ s❤✐rt✳ ■ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧❧② ❞❡t❡st t❤✐s ❧♦♦❦ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ✐t t❡♥❞s t♦ s❤♦✇ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ❢❛t ♦♥ ✉❣❧② ❣✉②s✱ ❜✉t s❦✐♥♥② ❣✉②s ❝❛♥ ♣✉❧❧ ✐t ♦✛✳ • ❯s❡ ❛ ✈❡st ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ♣❛♥ts✳ ❆ ❜❧❛❝❦ ✈❡st ❣♦❡s ✇❡❧❧ ✇✐t❤ ❥✉st t❤❡ ♣❛♥ts ❛♥❞ ❣✐✈❡s ❛ ♠♦r❡ ❊✉r♦♣❡❛♥ ❛❧❧✉r❡✳ • ❯s❡ t❤❡ ✈❡st ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ s✉✐t ❢♦r ❛ ♠❛❦❡s❤✐❢t t❤r❡❡ ♣✐❡❝❡ s✉✐t✳ ❚❤✐s ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ✐s ②♦✉r ♠♦st ❞✐❣♥✐✜❡❞✴❦❡♣t ❧♦♦❦✱ ❜✉t ✐t ❛❧s♦ t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ ❛ ❜✐t ❢♦r♠❛❧✳ • ❲❡❛r ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t t✐❡s ♦r ❝♦❧♦r❡❞ s❤✐rts✳ ❆ ❜❧❛❝❦ s✉✐t ❝❛♥ ❤❛✈❡ ♠✐❧❧❤tt♣✿✴✴♠❡♥✳st②❧❡✳❝♦♠✴❣q✐♦♥s ♦❢ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛t✐♦♥s✳ • ❉♦♥✬t t✉❝❦ ②♦✉r s❤✐rt ✐♥✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ t❤✐s ♦♥❧② ✇♦r❦s ✐♥ ❝❛s✉❛❧ s✐t✉❛t✐♦♥s✱ ✐t t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ ❛♥ ✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣ ❝♦♥❝❡♣t✲ ❜✉t ✐t ✐s ❱❊❘❨ ❱❊❘❨ ❤❛r❞ t♦ ♣✉❧❧ ♦✛✳ ✷✳✻ ▼✐s❝ ❚✐♣s ❛♥❞ ❚r✐❝❦s • ●❡t ✇♦♠❡♥ t♦ ❤❡❧♣ ②♦✉✳ ❨♦✉ ✇♦✉❧❞♥✬t ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ ❤♦✇ ♠❛♥② ❣✐r❧s ❛r❡ ✇✐❧❧✐♥❣ t♦ ❥✉♠♣ ❛♥❞ ❛ss✐st ②♦✉ ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ■t ♠❛② ❜❡ ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ ✐♥✈❛s✐✈❡✱ ❜✉t ✐t ❤❡❧♣s✳ • ❊①❡r❝✐s❡ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❞♦❡s ❤❡❧♣ ②♦✉r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ❚✲s❤✐rts ♦♥ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❞❡✜♥❡❞ ❝❤❡st ❧♦♦❦ ❜❡tt❡r t❤❛♥ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ✇❤♦ ❤❛s ❛ ✇❛s❤❜♦❛r❞ ❝❤❡st✳ ❍❛✈✐♥❣ ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ♠❛❦❡s t❤✐♥❣s ❜❡tt❡r✳ • ❘❡✲✇❡❛r ❥❡❛♥s ❛♥❞ s♦♠❡ ♣❛♥ts✱ ♥❡✈❡r s❤✐rts✳ ❚❤✐s r❡❛❧❧② ❞❡♣❡♥❞s ♦♥ ❤♦✇ ②♦✉ s✇❡❛t✱ ❜✉t ❥❡❛♥s ❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r ✧❤❡❛✈②✧ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧ ♣❛♥ts ❝❛♥ ❜❡ r❡✲✇♦r♥ s❛❢❡❧②✳ ❏✉st ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ②♦✉r s❤✐rt ✲ tr✉st ♠❡✱ ✐t ✇✐❧❧ s♠❡❧❧ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ✇❤❛t✳ P❧✉s✱ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ✇❛♥t t♦ ✇❡❛r t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❡①❛❝t t❤✐♥❣ t✇♦ t✐♠❡s ✐♥ ❛ r♦✇✳ • ■❢ ❛t ❛❧❧ ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡✱ ✇❛s❤ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉ ✇❡❛r ✐t t❤❡ ✜rst t✐♠❡✳ ■t ❣❡ts t❤❡ ✧st♦r❡ s♠❡❧❧✧ ♦✉t ♦❢ ✐t✱ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s ♠❛❦❡s ✐t s♦❢t❡r✳ • ❲❡❛r ❝❧❡❛r ❞❡♦❞♦r❛♥t✳ ❊s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✇✐t❤ ❜❧❛❝❦ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ✇❤✐t❡ ♠❛r❦s ❝❛♥ s❤♦✇ ✉♣✳ ❚❤❡ s❛♠❡ t❤✐♥❣ ❣♦❡s ✇✐t❤ ❞❛♥❞r✉✛ ✲ ❣❡t ✐t ✜①❡❞✳ ❊s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✇✐t❤ ❞❛r❦ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ s✉❝❤ t❤✐♥❣s ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ♥♦t✐❝❡❞✳ • ■❢ ✐t ❤❛s ❛♥ ✉♥s✐❣❤t❧② st❛✐♥✱ ❣❡t r✐❞ ♦❢ ✐t✳ ❏❡❛♥s ❞♦ ♥♦t ❛♣♣❧② ❤❡r❡ ❜✉t ❢♦r ✇❤✐t❡ s❤✐rts ♦r ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❢♦r♠❛❧✱ ❥✉st ❛❝❝❡♣t t❤❛t ✐t ❞✐❡❞✳ ❨♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ✇❛♥t t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❣r❡❛s② tr✉❝❦❡r✳ • ❚r② t♦ ❛✈♦✐❞ s❤♦♣♣✐♥❣ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥✬t s❡❡ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤❡s ✐♥ ❛❝t✉❛❧✐t②✱ ②♦✉ ♠❛② ❡♥❞ ✉♣ ❣❡tt✐♥❣ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ✜t ②♦✉✱ ♦r s✐♠♣❧② ❧♦♦❦s ❞✉♠❜ ♦♥ ②♦✉✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✼ ❈❧♦t❤✐❡rs ✲ ❙t♦r❡ ❇r❛♥❞s✼ • ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤ ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤ ✐s t❤❡ ♠❛✐♥ st♦r❡ ❜r❛♥❞ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② ♦❢ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ♥❛♠❡✱ ✇❤♦ ♦♣❡r❛t❡s ❛ ❧♦♥❣ ❧✐♥❡ ♦❢ t❡❡♥✲s❛✈✈② ❝❧♦t❤✐❡rs ❛❧❧ ♦✈❡r t❤❡ ❯♥✐t❡❞ ❙t❛t❡s✳ ❚❤✐s ❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❤❛s s♣❡♥t t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ✐t✬s t✐♠❡ ❛✐♠✐♥❣ t♦✇❛r❞ t❤❡ ✶✹✲✷✺ ❞❡♠♦❣r❛♣❤✐❝✱ t❤♦✉❣❤ ✐t ❤❛s ♠❛♥❛❣❡❞ t♦ ♣✉❧❧ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ♦❧❞❡r ❛♥❞ ②♦✉♥❣❡r ❣r♦✉♣s ✇✐t❤ ✐t✬s ❤✐♣ st②❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ s❡①✲✐♠❜✉❡❞ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝❛♠♣❛✐❣♥s✳ ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤ ✐s ❧✐❦❡ ▼②❙♣❛❝❡✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❣❡t s♦ ♦❧❞ ✭■ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧❧② ✇♦✉❧❞ s❛② ✶✽ ♦r s♦✮✱ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤ ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❝❤✐❧❞✐s❤✱ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❛ ▼②❙♣❛❝❡✳ ❚❤❡ r❡❛s♦♥ ❢♦r t❤✐s ✐s ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ✐t ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ♣✉❧❧ ♦✛ t❤❡ ✧②♦✉t❤❢✉❧ ❧♦♦❦✧ ✲ ❛♥❞ ❛♥②♦♥❡ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ r❡✜♥❡❞ ❛♥❞ ❞❡❝❡♥t ✐s ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❢✉❝❦✇❛❞ ✐♥ ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡ st♦♥❡ ✇❛s❤❡❞ s❤♦rts✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣✉❧❧ t❤✐s ❧♦♦❦ ♦✛ ❡❛s② ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❥✉st ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❜✉♥❝❤ ♦❢ ❢r✐❡♥❞s ✭❡r❣♦ ♥♦t tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ t♦♦ ❞❡❝❡♥t✮✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧♦❣♦ ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❝❤❡❛♣ ❛♥❞ st✉♣✐❞✱ ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ ❜✐t ♦❢ ❆✫❋ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✇♦r♥ ❜② ❛♥②♦♥❡ ✉♥❞❡r t❤❡ ❛❣❡ ♦❢ ✷✺ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❝❛✉s✐♥❣ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ♦❢ ❛ r✉❝❦✉s✳ ❏✉st ✇❛t❝❤ ♦✉t✲ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❢✉❝❦✇❛❞✳ • ❆❡r♦♣♦st❛❧❡ ❆❡r♦♣♦st❛❧❡ ✐s ❛ ❝❧♦t❤✐❡r t❤❛t ❛✐♠s ✐ts❡❧❢ ❛t t❤❡ ✶✶✲✶✽ ❞❡♠♦❣r❛♣❤✐❝ t❤❛t ✐s ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❛ ❝❤❡❛♣❡r ✈❡rs✐♦♥ ♦❢ tr❡♥❞② ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ❇❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✇♦r❦s s♦ ❤❛r❞ t♦ r❡♠❛✐♥ ❝❤❡❛♣ t♦ t❤❡ ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❝♦♥s✉♠❡r✱ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐ts❡❧❢ t❡♥❞s t♦ ❡rr ♦♥ t❤❡ ❝❤❡❛♣ s✐❞❡✲ ♥♦t ✐♥s❛♥❡❧② ❝❤❡❛♣✱ ❜✉t ♥♦t ❡①❛❝t❧② ✇♦♥❞❡r❢✉❧ ❡✐t❤❡r✳ ■t ✇♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ♠② ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧ r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞❛t✐♦♥ t♦ s✐♠♣❧② ❛✈♦✐❞ ❆❡r♦♣♦st❛❧❡ ✉♥❧❡ss ②♦✉✬r❡ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❡❡♥ st②❧❡ ♦♥ ❛ ❜✉❞❣❡t✳ ❆❡r♦♣♦st❛❧❡ s❤✐rts ✭❧✐❦❡ t❤❡ ♦♥❡ ■✬♠ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛s ■ t②♣❡ t❤✐s✮ ❛r❡ st✉♣✐❞❧② ❝❤❡❛♣✱ t❤❡✐r s❤♦rts ❛r❡ r❛❣❣❡❞✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐ts❡❧❢ ✐s ❥✉st ❣❡♥❡r✐❝✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ♥♦ ❞♦✉❜t ❝❤❡❛♣✱ ✐t ✐s ❛❧s♦ ♠❛❞❡ ❝❤❡❛♣✳ ❏✉st s❛✈❡ ✉♣ ❡①tr❛ ❝❛s❤❲❤✐❧❡ ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❥♦❡ ✭❡❣✿ ②♦✉✮ ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡✈❡r ♥❡❡❞ ✐t✱ t❤❡ t♦♣ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧✐♥❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠❛r❦❡t ❛t t❤❡ ❣✐✈❡♥ ♠♦♠❡♥t ✐s ❍✉❣♦ ❇♦ss✱ ✇❤♦ ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ♠♦rt❣❛❣❡ ②♦✉r ❤♦✉s❡ t♦ ❛✛♦r❞ ❤✐s ❞❡s✐❣♥s✳ ❛♥❞ s❦✐♣ t❤✐s st♦r❡✳ • ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❊❛❣❧❡ ❖✉t✜tt❡rs ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❊❛❣❧❡ ✐s ❛♥♦t❤❡r st♦♣ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧✐♥❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❜✐❣ t❡❡♥ r❡t❛✐❧❡rs ✭❆✫❋✱ ❆❊✱ ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r ❛♥❞ ❆❡r♦♣♦st❛❧❡✮✳ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ♠♦r❡ ✧❝❧❡❛♥ ❝✉t✧ t❤❛♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ♦✉t✜tt❡rs ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ♦❢ ✐t✬s ❧❛❝❦ ♦❢ s❡①✉❛❧ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s❡♠❡♥ts✱ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❊❛❣❧❡ t❡♥❞s t♦ t❛r❣❡t t❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ❛t❤❧❡t✐❝ ❞❡♠♦❣r❛♣❤✐❝ ❛s ❛ ✇❤♦❧❡✳ ❚❤✐s ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s s❡❡♥ ♦❢t❡♥ ♦♥ t❤♦s❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ ✧❥♦❝❦s✧✱ ❛s ✐t ✐s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② t❛✐❧♦r❡❞ t♦ ✜t ❛t❤❧❡t✐❝ ❜♦❞✐❡s ✇❡❧❧✲ t❤♦✉❣❤ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤❡s✱ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ♦t❤❡r ❜r❛♥❞s✱ t❡♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ ❢♦r t❤❡ s✉♣❡r s❦✐♥♥② ✭s♦ ❜♦❞②❜✉✐❧❞❡rs ❢r♦♠ ♦✉r ❊①❡r❝✐s❡ ❝❤❛♣t❡r ✇✐❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❞♦ s♦♠❡ s❡r✐♦✉s ❤✉♥t✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❣♦♦❞ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❢r♦♠ ❤❡r❡✮✳ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❊❛❣❧❡ ♠❛❦❡s ❞❡❝❡♥t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✲ s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s✳ ▼✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ♦t❤❡r t❡❡♥ ❝❧♦t❤✐❡rs✱ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ q✉❛❧✐t② t❡♥❞s t♦ ✈❛r② ❞❡♣❡♥❞✐♥❣ ♦♥ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ❜✉②✳ ❇✉②✐♥❣ ❛ ♣♦❧♦ ❢r♦♠ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❊❛❣❧❡ ✐s ❜② ❢❛r ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❝❤♦✐❝❡✱ ❜✉t ❜✉②✐♥❣ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❛ ❜✐t ♠♦r❡ s♣❡❝✐✜❝ ✭s✉❝❤ ❛s s❤♦❡s✮ t❡♥❞s t♦ r❡s✉❧t ✐♥ ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡ ❢❛✐❧✉r❡✳ ❆♥❞✱ ♦❢ ❝♦✉rs❡✱ t❤✐s ✐s ❛ ❚❊❊◆ ❘❊❚❆■▲❊❘✲ s♦ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ♦❧❞❡r ♦r ❥✉st ❛r❡ s✐❝❦ ♦❢ s❡❡♠✐♥❣ ♣r❡♣♣②✱ ❛✈♦✐❞ t❤✐s s❤✐t ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡ ♣❧❛❣✉❡✳ • ❆r♠❛♥✐ ❊①❝❤❛♥❣❡ ❆r♠❛♥✐ ❊①❝❤❛♥❣❡ ❝❛♠❡ ♦✉t ♦❢ t❤❡ ❋❛s❤✐♦♥ ✇♦r❧❞ ❛♥❞ s✉r♣r✐s❡❞ t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦ ♦✉t ♦❢ ❡✈❡r②❜♦❞②✳ ❆ s♣✐r✐t✉❛❧ ❜r♦t❤❡r t♦ ●✐♦r❣✐♦ ❆r♠❛♥✐ ✭s❡❡ ❜❡❧♦✇✮✱ ❆r♠❛♥✐ ❊①❝❤❛♥❣❡ ✐s ❛ ♠✉❝❤ ❝❧❡❛♥❡r ❝✉t t❡❡♥✲❛♥❞✲t✇❡♥t②s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ r❡t❛✐❧❡r t❤❛t ❤❛s ♥♦ q✉❛❧♠s ❛❜♦✉t ❝❤❛r❣✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ❛♥ ❛r♠ ❛♥❞ ❛ ❧❡❣ ❢♦r t❤❡✐r ❞❡s✐❣♥s✳ ❆r♠❛♥✐ ❊①❝❤❛♥❣❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❛s ♠✉❝❤ ❛s ❞♦✉❜❧❡ t❤❛t ♦❢ ♦t❤❡r r❡t❛✐❧❡rs✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✇✐❧❧ ❝❡rt❛✐♥❧② ♣✉t ❛ ❤✉rt ♦♥ ②♦✉r ✇❛❧❧❡t ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡✐r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ P❡rs♦♥❛❧❧②✱ ■ ❧✐❦❡ ❆r♠❛♥✐ ❊①❝❤❛♥❣❡ ❜❡st ♦❢ ❛❧❧ ♦❢ t❤❡ t❡❡♥ r❡t❛✐❧❡rs✱ ❜✉t t❤❡ ♣r✐❝❡ ✐s ❥✉st t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤✳ P❛②✐♥❣ ✉♣✇❛r❞s ♦❢ ✩✹✵ ❢♦r ❛ t✲s❤✐rt ✐s ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ st✉♣✐❞✱ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ❤♦✇ r✐❝❤ ②♦✉ ❛r❡✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❛t ❜❡✐♥❣ s❛✐❞✱ ❆r♠❛♥✐ ❊①❝❤❛♥❣❡ ✐s ❛ ✇♦♥❞❡r❢✉❧ ♣❧❛❝❡ t♦ ✜♥❞ ✐❞❡❛s ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥❝❡♣ts ❢♦r ②♦✉r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ❜✉t ♥❡✈❡r ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ♣❧❛❝❡ t♦ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ♣✉r❝❤❛s❡ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ❚❤❡ ❲❡❜s✐t❡ ✽ ❝♦♥t❛✐♥s ❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❞r❡ss✐♥❣ r♦♦♠ t❤❛t ✐s ❧✐❦❡ ②♦✉r ❝♦r❡ t♦♦❧ ❢♦r ❞❡s✐❣♥✐♥❣ ❞❡❝❡♥t ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ♠✐①❡s ✲ s♦ ♣❧❛② ❛r♦✉♥❞ ✇✐t❤ ✐t✱ ❜✉t ♥❡✈❡r ♣❛② t❤❡♠ ❢♦r ②♦✉r t✐♠❡✳ ✼ ❆❧❧ ♦❢ t❤✐s ✐s ❛✐♠❡❞ ❆❚ ▼❆▲❊❙✳ ❚❤❡ ✇❤♦❧❡ ❧❛②♦✉t ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ❢♦r ❢❡♠❛❧❡s✳ ●✐r❧s✱ ●❚❋❖✲ ■ ❝❛♥✬t ✇r✐t❡ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ t❤✐s ❢♦r ②♦✉✱ s♦ ❣♦ s❤❡✲❢❛♣ t♦ ❨❛♦✐ ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✳ ✽ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❛r♠❛♥✐❡①❝❤❛♥❣❡✳❝♦♠ ✶✼ • ❇❛♥❛♥❛ ❘❡♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❇❛♥❛♥❛ ❘❡♣✉❜❧✐❝ ✇❛s ♦♥❝❡ ❛ st♦r❡ ❛♥❞ ❝❛t❛❧♦❣ ❜✉s✐♥❡ss ✭s♦♠❡✇❤❛t ❧✐❦❡ ❙❡❛rs ❘♦❡❜✉❝❦✮ t❤❛t ♠❛❞❡ q✉✐t❡ ❛ ❜✐t ♦❢ ♠♦♥❡② ♦♥ ♣❧❛②✐♥❣ t❤❡ ✧s❛❢❛r✐✧ ❧♦♦❦ ♦❢ ✐t✬s st♦r❡s ❛♥❞ ❝❛t❛❧♦❣✳ ❊✈❡♥t✉❛❧❧②✱ ✐t ✇❛s ♣✉r❝❤❛s❡❞ ❜② ❚❤❡ ●❛♣ ■♥❝✱ ✇❤♦ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❡❞ ✐t ✐♥t♦ ❛ ✧❈❛s✉❛❧ ▲✉①✉r②✧ st♦r❡ ✲ t❤❛t ✐s✱ r❡❧❛t✐✈❡❧② ❞❡❝❡♥t ♣r✐❝❡❞ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ♠♦r❡ r❡✜♥❡❞ ❧♦♦❦ t♦ ✐t✳ ■✬✈❡ r❡❝❡♥t❧② ❜❡❣✉♥ t♦ ❧✐❦❡ ❇❛♥❛♥❛ ❘❡♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡② ❤❛✈❡ ❞♦♥❡ ❛ ❢❛✐r❧② ❣♦♦❞ ❥♦❜ ♦❢ ♠❛♥❛❣✐♥❣ t❤❡✐r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❦❡❡♣✐♥❣ t❤✐♥❣s st②❧✐s❤✳ ❇❛♥❛♥❛ ❘❡♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ②♦✉r st❡♣ ✉♣ ❢r♦♠ ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r✴❆✫❋✴❆❊ s♦ ❢❛r ❛s ♣r✐❝❡ ❛♥❞ q✉❛❧✐t② ❣♦❡s✱ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s t❤❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ ♠❛t✉r✐t② ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐ts❡❧❢✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣❡t q✉✐t❡ ❛ ✇❛r❞r♦❜❡ ❢r♦♠ ❇❛♥❛♥❛ ❘❡♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❛♥❞ ♥♦t ❣♦ ✇r♦♥❣✱ ❛s ♠♦st ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s st②❧✐s❤ ❛♥❞ ❝❧❛ss② ❡♥♦✉❣❤ t♦ ❜❡ ✇♦r♥ ❡✈❡♥ ✐♥t♦ ②♦✉r ❧❛t❡ ✸✵s✳ • ❇✐❣ ❉♦❣s ❇✐❣ ❉♦❣s ✐s ❛ ❝❧♦t❤✐❡r ❡♠❜❛rr❛ss♠❡♥t ♦❢ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② t❤❛t ♣r✐♠❛r✐❧② s❡❧❧s ✧❢✉♥♥②✧ t✲s❤✐rts ❛♥❞ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ❢❡❛t✉r✐♥❣ ❣r❛♣❤✐❝ ♣r✐♥ts ♦❢ ❞♦❣s ✉s✉❛❧❧② ♣❛r♦❞②✐♥❣ ♣♦♣ ❝✉❧t✉r❡ ♦r s♦♠❡ ♦t❤❡r st✉♣✐❞ s❤✐t✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s t❤❡ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ s❤✐t t❤❛t ②♦✉ s❡❡ ❢❛t ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✇❡❛r t♦ ❛♣♣❡❛r ❢✉♥♥②✱ ❜✉t ✐s s✉❝❤ ❛ tr❛✐♥ ✇r❡❝❦ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❜r❡❛❦ t❤❡✐r ❜❡❡r ❜♦tt❧❡✱ t❛❦❡ ❛ s❤❛r❞ ♦❢ ❣❧❛ss✱ r✐♣ t❤❡✐r ❤❡❛rt ❢r♦♠ t❤❡✐r ❝❤❡st ❝❛✈✐t②✱ ❛♥❞ s❤♦✈❡ ✐t ❞♦✇♥ t❤❡✐r ♠♦✉t❤✳ ■✬♠ ♥♦t ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❦✐❞❞✐♥❣✳ • ❚❤❡ ❇✉❝❦❧❡ ❇✉❝❦❧❡ ✐s ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② t❤❛t ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧❧② st❛rt❡❞ ♦✉t ❛s ▼✐❧❧s ❈❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ■♥❝ ✐♥ ◆❡❜r❛s❦❛✳ ❆s t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐❡r ❣r❡✇✱ ✐t s❧♦✇❧② ♠♦r♣❤❡❞ ✐♥t♦ ✧❚❤❡ ❇✉❝❦❧❡✧✱ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② t❤❛t ❛✐♠❡❞ ❛t t❤❡ t❡❡♥ ❞❡♠♦❣r❛♣❤✐❝✳ ❚❤❡ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② r❛r❡❧② ♠❛❦❡s ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ♦❢ ✐t✬s ♦✇♥ ❛♥②♠♦r❡✱ s♣❡♥❞✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ✐t✬s t✐♠❡ s❡❧❧✐♥❣ ♦t❤❡r ♣♦♣✉❧❛r ❜r❛♥❞s ✭s✉❝❤ ❛s P♦❧♦ ❘❛❧♣❤ ▲❛✉r❡♥✱ ❉r✳ ▼❛rt❡♥s✱ ❡t❝✮✳ ■✬✈❡ ♥❡✈❡r r❡❛❧❧② s❡❡♥ ❇✉❝❦❧❡ ❛s ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❜✉t ❛♥ ❡①t❡♥s✐♦♥ ♦❢ s♦♠❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❜r❛♥❞s ✐t s❡❧❧s✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡ ❛♥② ♦❢ t❤❡ ❜r❛♥❞s ✐t s❡❧❧s ✭P❙✿ ❱♦❧❝♦♠ ✐s ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ st✉♣✐❞✮✱ t❤❡♥ ❜② ❛❧❧ ♠❡❛♥s✱ ❣♦ ❢♦r ✐t✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❞♦ ♥♦t❡ t❤❛t ✐t r❡❛❧❧② ✐s♥✬t t❤❡ t♦♣ ♦❢ t❤❡ t♦♣ ✇❤❡♥ ✐t ❝♦♠❡s t♦ s❛❧❡s ♦r ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ❡①❡♠♣❧❛r② ✇❤❡♥ ✐t ❝♦♠❡s t♦ st②❧❡ ❡✐t❤❡r✳ ❯s❡ ②♦✉r ♦✇♥ ❥✉❞❣♠❡♥t ❛s t♦ ❤♦✇ t❤✐s st♦r❡ ✜ts ②♦✉✳ • ❞✳❡✳♠✳♦ ❞✳❡✳♠✳♦ ✐s ❛ ❤✐♣ ❤♦♣ ✐♥s♣✐r❡❞ ❜r❛♥❞ ❜② t❤❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❛t P❛❝✐✜❝ ❙✉♥✇❡❛r ✭P❛❝s✉♥✮✳ ■t ✐s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ❛ ❧❛r❣❡ ♦✉t❧❡t ❢♦r ♠❡♥✬s ✇❡❛r s✉❝❤ ❛s ❊❝❦♦ ♦r ❙❡❛♥ ❏♦❤♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❢♦r ❛❧❧ ✐♥t❡♥ts ❛♥❞ ♣✉r♣♦s❡s✱ ♠❛✐♥❧② t❛r❣❡ts t❤❡ ❆❢r✐❝❛♥✲❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐t②✳ ❚❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❣❡♥❡r✐❝ ❛♥❞ t②♣✐❝❛❧ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❣❛♥❣st❡r ✭♦r ✐♥ t❤✐s ❝❛s❡✱ ❣❛♥❣st❡r✲✇❛♥♥❛❜❡✮✱ ❛♥❞ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ❝♦sts ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ❡✈❡♥ ❤✐❣❤❡r ❡♥❞ ❜r❛♥❞s ✐♥ ♦t❤❡r st♦r❡s✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ♦♥❡ ♦❢ t❤♦s❡ t❤✐♥❣s t❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇♦✉❧❞ ♦♥❧② t♦✉❝❤ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❡r❡ ✐♥t♦ ❤✐♣✲❤♦♣ ❛♥❞ ✇❤❛t♥♦t✱ ❛♥❞ ❝♦✉❧❞ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ♣✉❧❧ t❤✐s s❤✐t ♦✛✳ ■❢ ♥♦t✱ ❥✉st ❣♦ t♦ t❤❡ ✇❡❜s✐t❡ ✾ ❢♦r t✇♦ s❡❝♦♥❞s ❛♥❞ ❤❛✈❡ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❧❛✉❣❤ ❛t t❤❡ ✇❤✐t❡ ♠♦❞❡❧s ♦♥ t❤❡ ♣❛❣❡✳ ❚❤❡♥ ❣❡t ♦✛✱ ❜❡❢♦r❡ t❤❛t s❤✐t ✐♥❢❡❝ts ②♦✉✳ • ❊❞❞✐❡ ❇❛✉❡r ❊❞❞✐❡ ❇❛✉❡r ✐s ❛ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② ♠❛✐♥❧② ❛✐♠❡❞ t♦✇❛r❞ ✷✺✲✹✵ ②❡❛r ♦❧❞ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ■t✬s ❤✐st♦r② ❝♦♠❡s ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧ ✧❊❞❞✐❡ ❇❛✉❡r✬s ❙♣♦rts ❙❤♦♣✧✱ ✇❤❡r❡ ♠✉❝❤ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✇❛s ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ ❢♦r t❤❡ ♦✉t❞♦♦rs②✲ ❛♥❞ t❤❛t tr❡♥❞ ❤❛s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ❝❛rr✐❡❞ t♦ t❤✐s ❞❛②✳ ◆♦t❤✐♥❣ ♦❢ t❤✐s st②❧❡ ❤❛s ❡✈❡r r❡❛❧❧② t❛❦❡♥ ♦✛ ✐♥ ❛♥② ✐♥s❛♥❡ ✇❛②✱ ❤♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡ st♦r❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❡s t♦ ❣r♦✇ ❛t ❛ ❧❛r❣❡ ♣❛❝❡ ❛s ♠❛♥② s❡❛r❝❤ ❢♦r r❡❛s♦♥❛❜❧② ♣r✐❝❡❞ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❧♦♦❦s ❞❡❝❡♥t ♦♥ ♠✐❞❞❧❡ ❛❣❡❞ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❊❞❞✐❡ ❇❛✉❡r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❣r❡❛t ❜✉t ♦✈❡r❞♦✐♥❣ ✐t ✐s ❞❡❛t❤✳ ❊❞❞✐❡ ❇❛✉❡r ♣✉❧❧♦✈❡rs ❛♥❞ s✇❡❛t❡rs ❛r❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ✇♦♥❞❡r❢✉❧ ✭❊❞❞✐❡ ❇❛✉❡r ❞✐❞ ✐♥✈❡♥t t❤❡ ✜rst ❞♦✇♥ P❛r❦❛✮✱ ❜✉t t❤❡✐r ♣❛♥ts ❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❛ ❜✐t ♦❧❞✲♠❛♥✲✐s❤ ❢♦r ♠❡✳ ▼❛♥② ❝❛♥ ♣✉❧❧ ✐t ♦✛✲ ❥✉st ❞♦♥✬t ♦✈❡r❞♦ ✐t ♦r ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ ❚❖❖ ♦❧❞✳ • ❋❖❙❙■▲ • ●❛♣ ❚❤❡ ●❛♣ ✐s ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② t❤❛t ❤❛s ❜❡❡♥ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ❢♦r ❛❣❡s✱ ❛❧✇❛②s t❛r❣❡t✐♥❣ ♦❧❞❡r t❡❡♥s t♦ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ t❤✐rt②s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❝r♦✇❞✳ ❚❤❡ ♥❛♠❡ ✐ts❡❧❢ r❡❢❡rs t♦ ✧❚❤❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛t✐♦♥ ❣❛♣✧✱ t❤❡ ❍✐♣♣✐❡ ♠♦✈❡♠❡♥t ✲ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❦✐♥❞❛ ❞❡❛❞ ❜② ♥♦✇✱ ✾ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❞❡♠♦♥st♦r❡s✳❝♦♠ ✶✽ ❜✉t t❤❡ st♦r❡s st✐❧❧ r❡♠❛✐♥✳ ●❛♣ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❋❆❘ ♠♦r❡ ✉r❜❛♥ t❤❛♥ t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐♥ ♠❛❧❧s ♥♦✇ ✭❚❤❡ ●❛♣ ❤❛s ②❡t t♦ ❛❞♦♣t t❤❡ ✧▼✐❛♠✐ ❇❡❛❝❤✧ ❧♦♦❦✲ ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦r ✉s✱ ❜❛❞ ❢♦r ✐t✬s st♦❝❦ ✈❛❧✉❡✮✳ ■ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❧✐❦❡ s♦♠❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ●❛♣ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ♠♦r❡ ❝❧❛ss✐❝❛❧ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❞♦✳ ❚❤❡ ●❛♣ ✐s ❛ ✈❡r② ✉r❜❛♥ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✭st②❧❡✲✇✐s❡✲ ❛♥❞ ■✬♠ t❛❧❦✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t ✉♣♣❡r ◆❨ ✉r❜❛♥✱ ♥♦t ●❛♥❣st❡r ✉r❜❛♥✮✱ s♦ ✐t ❧♦♦❦s ❞❡❝❡♥t ♦♥ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ❣✐✈❡ ❛ ♠♦r❡ t❛✐❧♦r❡❞ ♦r r❡✜♥❡❞ ❧♦♦❦✳ ❚❤❡ ●❛♣ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ t❡♥❞s t♦ ✈❛r② ✐♥ q✉❛❧✐t②✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠✱ ❜✉t t❤❡✐r st❛♣❧❡s ✭P❛♥ts✱ s❤✐rts✱ ❡t❝✮ ❦✐❝❦ ❛ss✳ • ▼❡♥s ❲❛r❡❤♦✉s❡ ❍✐ ■✬♠ ●❡♦r❣❡ ❩✐♠♠❡r ❢♦✉♥❞❡r ❛♥❞ ❈❊❖ ♦❢ t❤❡ ▼❡♥s ❲❛r❡❤♦✉s❡ ✭✐♥s❡rt ❝♦♣②♣❛st❛ ❤❡r❡✮ ■ ❣✉❛r❛♥t❡❡ ✐t✳ ▲✐❦❡ ✐t ♦r ♥♦t s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s ✐♥ ❧✐❢❡ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❞r❡ss t♦ ✐♠♣r❡ss ❛s t❤❡② s❛②✳ ▼❡♥s ❲❛r❡❤♦✉s❡ ✐s ♥✐❝❡ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡② ♦✛❡r t❤❡ ❝❤❡❛♣❡st r❡♥t❛❧s ♦✉t ♦❢ ❛❧❧ t❤❡ ♠❡♥s s✉✐t st♦r❡s✳ ❆❧s♦ ✐t✬s ❛❧✇❛②s ♥✐❝❡ t♦ ❜✉② ❛ s✉✐t ♦r t✇♦ ❢♦r ❥♦❜ ✐♥t❡r✈✐❡✇s ♦r ♦t❤❡r s❤✐t✳ • ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r ✐s ❛ t❡❡♥✲♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❜r❛♥❞ ♦❢ ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤✳ ❚❤✐s ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤❡s ❛r❡ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ✐♥ s♦✉❧✱ ❜✉t ❞✐✛❡r ✐♥ t❤❛t t❤❡② t❡♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ ❛ ❜✐t s♠❛❧❧❡r✱ ❛ ❜✐t ❧❡ss ♦✈❡rt❧② s❡①✉❛❧ ✭t♦ ❣❛r♥❡r ♠♦r❡ ♣❛r❡♥t❛❧ ❛♣♣r♦✈❛❧✮✱ ❛♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ ❛✛♦r❞❛❜❧❡ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ❢♦r t❤❡ t❡❡♥ ❜✉❞❣❡t✳ ❚❤✐s ❜r❛♥❞ ❤❛s t❛❦❡♥ ♦✛✱ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❆✫❋ ❛♥❞ ❆❡r♦♣♦st❛❧❡✱ ❛s ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❛r❡ ♠♦✈✐♥❣ t♦✇❛r❞ t❤❡ ❈❛❧✐❢♦r♥✐❛✴▼✐❛♠✐ ❇❡❛❝❤ ❧♦♦❦✳ ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❣♦♦❞✱ ❛♥❞ ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❜❛❞✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ♦✈❡r ✶✽ ✭②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ r❡❛❞✐♥❣ t❤✐s✮✱ ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r ✐s t♦♦ ②♦✉♥❣ ❢♦r ②♦✉✱ ❣❡t ♦✉t✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ②♦✉♥❣❡r ✭❞♦✉❜t ✐t✮✱ t❤✐s ✐s♥✬t s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦♦ ❜❛❞ t♦ ❣♦ ❢♦r✳ ▼✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❆✫❋✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❡♥❞ ✉♣ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❝❛r❜♦♥ ❝♦♣②✳✳✳ ❜✉t ✐t ✇♦r❦s✳ ❆❧s♦✱ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❆❊✱ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ t❡♥❞s t♦ ✜t ♠♦r❡ ❛t❤❧❡t✐❝ ❜♦❞✐❡s ❜❡tt❡r✳ ❋❛tt✐❡s ♥❡❡❞ ♥♦t ❛♣♣❧②✳ ❊✈❡r✳ • ❍♦t ❚♦♣✐❝ ❨♦✉ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❦♥♦✇ ❍♦t ❚♦♣✐❝✳ ❊st❛❜❧✐s❤❡❞ ✐♥ ✶✾✽✽✱ t❤❡ st♦r❡s ❛r❡ ♠❛✐♥❧② ❜❛s❡❞ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ❛♥② ❣✐✈❡♥ ♠✉s✐❝ tr❡♥❞ ♦❢ t❤❡ t✐♠❡✱ s❡❧❧✐♥❣ ❞❛r❦ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ❜❛♥❞ ♠❡r❝❤❛♥❞✐s❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❝♦✉❧❞ ♣♦ss✐❜❧② ✜t ✐♥ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥✳ ❆s t❤❡ st♦r❡ ❤❛s ❣r♦✇♥ t♦ ♦✈❡r ✻✵✵ st♦r❡s ♥❛t✐♦♥✇✐❞❡✱ ✐t ❤❛s s❧♦✇❧② ❡✈♦❧✈❡❞ t♦ ❡♥❝♦♠♣❛ss ✧♦t❛❦✉✧ ✇❡❛r ✭❲❡❡❛❜♦♦ s❤✐t✮✱ ❊♠♦ ✇❡❛r✱ ❛♥❞ ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t t❡❡♥s ♦r t✇❡♥t②s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣s ✇♦✉❧❞ ❜✉② ✐♥t♦✳ ❍♦t ❚♦♣✐❝ ✐s ❛ ♥♦✲♥♦ ❢♦r ❛♥② ❲❡❧❧ ❈✉❧t✉r❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ❛♥❞ ■✬♠ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ s❡r✐♦✉s✳ ❖♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ❤✐t ✶✽ ♦r ✶✾ ♦r s♦✱ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ t✲s❤✐rts ✇✐t❤ ❜❛♥❞s ♦♥ t❤❡♠ ❣♦❡s ❢r♦♠ ✧❤❛❤❛ ❝♦♦❧✧ t♦ ✧❤❛❤❛ st✉♣✐❞✧✳ ▲❡t✬s ❜❡ ❤♦♥❡st ✇✐t❤ ♦✉rs❡❧✈❡s ✲ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❛ ❥♦❜ ♦r ❞❛t✐♥❣✱ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❡①❝❡ss✐✈❡❧② s❦✐♥♥② ♣❛♥ts ❛♥❞ ❛ ❤❛✐r❝✉t t❤❛t ❝♦✈❡rs ❤❛❧❢ ②♦✉r ❢❛❝❡ ✐s st✉♣✐❞✳ ▲♦♦❦✱ ❥✉st ❜r❡❛❦ t❤❡ ❤❛❜✐t✳ ❍♦t ❚♦♣✐❝ ♠❛② ❜❡ ♠✉s✐❝✲r❡❧❛t❡❞✱ ❜✉t t❤❡ ❡♥t✐r❡ ✇♦r❧❞ ❞♦❡s ♥♦t r❡✈♦❧✈❡ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ♣✉♥❦✴❡♠♦ ♠✉s✐❝✳ ❏✉st ❧✐❦❡ ❍♦t ❚♦♣✐❝ ♦♥❝❡ ✇❛s ❛ ❜✐❣ ●♦t❤ r❡t❛✐❧❡r ✭❛♥❞ ❞r♦♣♣❡❞ ✐t ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❤♦t ♣♦t❛t♦✮✱ t❤❡② ✇✐❧❧ ✇✐t❤ ❨❖❯❘ ❢❛✈♦r✐t❡ st②❧❡✳ ❙t✐❝❦ ✇✐t❤ ♠♦r❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧ st②❧❡s ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛♥ ✐❞✐♦t✱ ❛♥❞ ❤♦♣❡❢✉❧❧② ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ②♦✉r ❝❧♦t❤❡s ❢♦r ❧♦♥❣❡r t❤❛♥ t✇♦ ②❡❛rs✳ • ❏✳❈r❡✇ ❏✳❈r❡✇ ✐s ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ P♦❧♦ ❘❛❧♣❤ ▲❛✉r❡♥ ✐♥ ✐t✬s st②❧❡✱ ❜✉t ✐s s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ✐♥ t❤❛t ✐t ✐s ❛ ♣r✐♠❛r✐❧② ❝❛t❛❧♦❣ ❛♥❞ ✐♥t❡r♥❡t ❜❛s❡❞ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②✳ ❏✳❈r❡✇ ✐s ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ▲❛♥❞s ❊♥❞ ✐♥ t❤✐s ✲ ✐t t❡♥❞s t♦ st✐❝❦ t♦ tr❛❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ st②❧❡s✱ ❛♥❞ s✐♠♣❧② ❞♦ ♠✐♥♦r ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥s ✇❤❡♥❡✈❡r ✐t ✐s ✧s❛❢❡✧ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ♠♦r❡ s❛❧❡s✳ ❚❤✐s✱ ❜② ❛❧❧ ♠❡❛♥s✱ ❞♦❡s ♥♦t ♠❡❛♥ ❏✳❈r❡✇ ✐s ❛ ❜❛❞ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②✳ ■♥ ❢❛❝t✱ ②♦✉ ♠❛② ✜♥❞ s♦♠❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❜❡st st✉✛ ❤❡r❡✳ ●♦ ❤✉♥t✐♥❣ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❜❛s✐❝s✱ ❡✈❡♥ ✉♥❞❡r✇❡❛r ❛♥❞ s♦❝❦s ❛♥❞ ❥✉st ❧♦❛❞ ✉♣ ♦♥ t❤❡ ✈❡r② s✐♠♣❧❡ st✉✛✳ ■ ✇♦✉❧❞♥✬t r❡❛❧❧② ♣r♦♠♦t❡ ♣✉r❝❤❛s✐♥❣ ❛♥② ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ s❤✐rts ♦r ♣❛♥ts ❤❡r❡✱ ❜✉t ■ ❝❛♥ ✐♠❛❣✐ • ◆♦r❞str♦♠ ◆♦r❞str♦♠ ✐s ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❛ ❞❡♣❛rt♠❡♥t st♦r❡ ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ❛♥ ❛❝t✉❛❧ ❝❧♦t❤✐❡r✳ ●❡♥❡r❛❧❧② st②❧✐st✐❝❛❧❧② ❜❡tt❡r t❤❛♥ ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❞❡♣❛rt♠❡♥t st♦r❡ ✭▼❛❝②s✱ ❉✐❧❧❛r❞s✱ ❡t ❛❧✮✱ t❤❡ st♦r❡s t❡♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ ♠✉❝❤ ♠♦r❡ ❛✤✉❡♥t t❤❛♥ ②♦✉r r❡❣✉❧❛r ♦❧❞ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ♣❧❛❝❡✳ ▼✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ♠❛♥② ♦t❤❡r ✉♣♣❡r ❝❧❛ss ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ✭◆✐♥t❡♥❞♦✱ ❙t❛r❜✉❝❦s✱ ❆♠❛③♦♥✳❝♦♠✮✱ ◆♦r❞str♦♠ ✐s ❜❛s❡❞ ♦✉t ♦❢ ❙❡❛tt❧❡✳ ◆♦r❞str♦♠✱ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❛♥② ♦t❤❡r ♠❛ss ❝❧♦t❤✐❡r✱ ❤❛s ❤✐ts ❛♥❞ ♠✐ss❡s ❛❝r♦ss t❤❡ ❜♦❛r❞✱ s♦ ✐t✬s ❤❛r❞ t♦ ❞❡✜♥❡ t❤❡✐r st✉✛ ❜② ❛♥② ♠❛❥♦r ❞❡✜♥✐t✐♦♥ ♦r t❡r♠✳ P❡rs♦♥❛❧❧②✱ ■ t❤✐♥❦ ◆♦r❞str♦♠ ✐s ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ♦♥❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❜❡st st♦r❡s ❢♦r ✉♣✲❛♥❞✲❝♦♠✐♥❣ ❝♦♥s✉♠❡r tr❡♥❞s✱ ❜✉t ✐t ❛❧s♦ ❝♦♠❡s ✇✐t❤ ❛ s❧✐❣❤t❧② ❤✐❣❤❡r ♣r✐❝❡ t❛❣ t❤❛♥ ②♦✉ ✇♦✉❧❞ ✜♥❞ ✐♥ ♦t❤❡r st♦r❡s✳ ❇✉t t❤✐s ✐s ✜♥❡✿ t❤❡✐r s❡r✈✐❝❡ ✐s ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡❧② ♣❤❡♥♦♠❡♥❛❧ ❛♥❞ t❤❡✐r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ✇❡❧❧ ♠❛❞❡✳ ✶✾ P❙✿ ◆♦r❞str♦♠ ✐s r♦❝❦❡t✐♥❣ ✉♣ ✐♥ t❤❡ st♦❝❦ ♠❛r❦❡t r✐❣❤t ♥♦✇ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❝❛t ✇✐t❤ ❛ ✜r❡❝r❛❝❦❡r ✉♣ ✐t✬s ❛ss✳ • ◆♦rt❤ ❋❛❝❡ • ❖❛❦❧❡② ❖❛❦❧❡② ✐s ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② t❤❛t ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧❧② st❛rt❡❞ ♦✉t ❞❡s✐❣♥✐♥❣ s✉♥❣❧❛ss❡s ❛♥❞ s❦✐ ❣♦❣❣❧❡s✳ ❚❤❡✐r ♣♦♣✉❧❛r✐t② ❤❛s s❧♦✇❧② r✐s❡♥ ❢♦r ✈❛r✐♦✉s ♣✉r♣♦s❡s✱ ♥❛♠❡❧② t❤❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ♦❢ t❤❡ ❣❧❛ss❡s✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡s❡ ❣❧❛ss❡s ❤❛✈❡ r❡❝❡♥t❧② t❛❦❡♥ ♦♥ ❛ s♠❛❧❧ ♥✐❝❤❡✱ ❛♥❞ t❡♥❞ t♦ ❛❧❧ ❛♣♣❡❛r t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ✭❚❤❡ ✧❖❛❦❧❡② ▲♦♦❦✧✮✱ ✇✐t❤ t✐♥t❡❞ ✭r❡❞ ♦r ♦r❛♥❣❡✱ t②♣✐❝❛❧❧②✮ ❧❡♥s❡s ❛♥❞ ♣❧❛st✐❝✴♠❡t❛❧ ❢r❛♠❡s✳ ❚❤❡ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❤❛s r❡❝❡♥t❧② ❣♦♥❡ ✐♥t♦ ♦t❤❡r ♠❛r❦❡ts ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤✐s ♣♦♣✉❧❛r✐t②✳ ❖❦❛②✱ ■✬♠ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ s❛② ✐t✳ ❖❛❦❧❡② s✉♥❣❧❛ss❡s ❛r❡ ❢♦r r❡t❛r❞s✳ ❚❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❣♦❡s ✇✐t❤ t❤❡✐r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ❖❛❦❧❡② ✐s ❢❛r ❢r♦♠ ❜❡✐♥❣ ✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣ ♦r ♠❛s❝✉❧✐♥❡✱ ❛♥❞ r❛t❤❡r r❡♠✐♥❞s ♦♥❡ ♦❢ ❛ ❞✉♠❜ t❡❡♥❛❣❡ ❞r♦♣♦✉t ✇❤♦ tr✐❡s t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ✧❤❛r❞❝♦r❡✧ ❛s ❤❡ ✢✐♣s ❜✉r❣❡rs ❛s ▼❝❉♦♥❛❧❞s✳ ■✬♠ ❥✉st s❛②✐♥❣✳ • ❖❧❞ ◆❛✈② ❖❧❞ ◆❛✈② ✐s ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② r✉♥ ❜② ❚❤❡ ●❛♣ t❤❛t ❛✐♠s s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❧❧② ❛t ❧♦✇❡r ❛♥❞ ♠✐❞❞❧❡ ♠✐❞❞❧❡ ❝❧❛ss ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ t❤❛t s♦✉♥❞s ❝♦♥❢✉s✐♥❣✱ t❤❡ tr❛♥s❧❛t✐♦♥ ✐s t❤❛t ❖❧❞ ◆❛✈② ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ s✐♠✐❧❛r t♦ t❤❛t ❢♦✉♥❞ ❛t ❚❤❡ ●❛♣✱ ❥✉st ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ ❜✐t ❜❡❤✐♥❞ t❤❡ st②❧❡ ❝✉r✈❡ ❛♥❞ ❛ ❜✐t ❝❤❡❛♣❡r✳ ❖t❤❡r t❤❛♥ t❤✐s✱ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ♠✉❝❤ ❛❦✐♥ t♦ t❤❡ st✉✛ ❢♦✉♥❞ ❛t ❚❤❡ ●❛♣ ✲ ❛❧❜❡✐t ♠✉❝❤ ❝❤❡❛♣❡r ❛♥❞ ❧❡ss st✉r❞②✳ ❖❧❞ ◆❛✈② ✐s t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ♦❢ ❛ ❣❛♠❜❧❡✱ st②❧❡✲✇✐s❡✱ t♦ ❡✈❡♥ ❜♦t❤❡r ✇✐t❤✳ ❚❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ r❛r❡❧②✱ ✐❢ ❡✈❡r✱ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s st②❧❡ ✐♥ ❛♥② ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ✇❛②✱ ❛♥❞ t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ st✉✛ ②❡❛r ❛❢t❡r ②❡❛r✳ ❚❤✐s ✇♦✉❧❞ ♥♦t ❜❡ s♦ ❜❛❞✱ ✇♦✉❧❞ ✐t ♥♦t ❜❡ ❢♦r t❤❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s s❤✐tt② ❛t ❜❡st✳ ❚❤❡ ❏❡❛♥s t❡♥❞ t♦ ❤♦❧❞ ✉♣ ❢❛✐r❧② ✇❡❧❧✱ ❜✉t ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❝♦tt♦♥ ♦r ❧✐♥❡♥ ✭❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② t❤❡✐r ❝❤✐♥♦ ♣❛♥ts✮ ❢❛❧❧s ❛♣❛rt ✐♥ ❛ ❢❡✇ ✇❛s❤❡s✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ s♦♠❡ ❣♦♦❞ ❜✉②s ❛t ❖❧❞ ◆❛✈②✱ ❥✉st ♥♦t ♦❢t❡♥✳ • P❛❝❙✉♥ P❛❝✐✜❝ ❙✉♥✇❡❛r ✭❛❜❜r❡✈✐❛t❡❞ t♦ P❛❝❙✉♥✮ ✐s ❛ ❈❛❧✐❢♦r♥✐❛ ❜❛s❡❞ r❡t❛✐❧❡r ♦❢ ❈❛❧✐❢♦r♥✐❛✲✐♥s♣✐r❡❞ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✲ ♥❛♠❡❧② st✉✛ r❡❧❛t❡❞ t♦ s✉r✜♥❣ ❛♥❞✴♦r s❦❛t❡❜♦❛r❞✐♥❣✳ ❋♦r t❤❡ ♠♦st ♣❛rt✱ P❛❝❙✉♥ ♦♣❡r❛t❡s ❛s ❛ st♦r❡ ❢✉❧❧ ♦❢ ❡①✐st✐♥❣ ❜r❛♥❞s ✭❱♦❧❝♦♠✱ ❇✐❧❧❛❜♦♥❣✱ ❡t❝✮✱ r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ❛ ❝❧♦t❤✐❡r ♦❢ ✐t✬s ♦✇♥ r✐❣❤t✲ ❤♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤❡s t❡♥❞ t♦ ❝♦♠❡ s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❧❧② ❢r♦♠ t❤♦s❡ st♦r❡s r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐t♦rs✳ P❛❝❙✉♥ ✐s ❛♥♦t❤❡r ❍♦❧❧✐st❡r✴❆❊✴❆✫❋ ❝❧♦♥❡ ✐♥ t❤❛t ✐t✬s t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ♦❧❞ ❜✉❧❧s❤✐t✿ ❈❛❧✐❢♦r♥✐❛ ♦r ▼✐❛♠✐ ❇❡❛❝❤ ✇❡❛r✳ ▲♦♦❦✱ ❛❜♦✉t ✾✵✪ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❯♥✐t❡❞ ❙t❛t❡s ✐s ✧t♦♦ ❢❛r✧ ❢r♦♠ ❛♥② ♠❛❥♦r ♦❝❡❛♥ t♦ ❥✉st✐❢② s✉r✜♥❣ ✐♥ ✐t ✭♦r ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝❛s❡ ♦❢ ◆❨❈✱ ♥♦✲♦♥❡✬s st✉♣✐❞ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ t♦ ❥✉♠♣ ✐♥✮✳ ❉r❡ss✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❜❡ ♦✉t ❣r✐♥❞✐♥❣ ❛ s✉r❢❜♦❛r❞ ✐s t❤✉s ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ st✉♣✐❞✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛rr② t❤❡ ❧♦♦❦ ♦❢ ❛♥ ✉r❜❛♥✐t❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✐♥t♦ t❤✐s✱ ❣♦ ❛❤❡❛❞✲ ❜✉t t❤✐s ❧♦♦❦s ♥❡✐t❤❡r ♠❛t✉r❡ ♥♦r ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧✳ • P✉♠❛ P✉♠❛ ✐s ❛ ❤✐❣❤ ❡♥❞ ❝❧♦t❤✐❡r ❢♦r ❛t❤❧❡t✐❝ ❣♦♦❞s ✭♣r✐♠❛r✐❧② s❤♦❡s ❛♥❞ r✉♥♥✐♥❣ ❣❡❛r✮✳ ❇❛s❡❞ ✐♥ ●❡r♠❛♥②✱ t❤❡ ❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✐s ❧❛r❣❡❧② ❜❛s❡❞ ✐♥ ❊✉r♦♣❡✱ ❤♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐t ❤❛s s❧♦✇❧② ❢♦✉♥❞ ✐t✬s ✇❛② ✐♥t♦ t❤❡ ❯♥✐t❡❞ ❙t❛t❡s ♦✈❡r t❤❡ ②❡❛rs✱ ❛♥❞ ❤❛s ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♠♦♥ s✐❣❤t ♦♥ ♠❛♥② ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ P✉♠❛ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ♦❜✈✐♦✉s❧② ❢♦r s♣♦rts✱ ❛♥❞ s❤♦✉❧❞ st❛② t❤❛t ✇❛②✳ ❋♦r t❤❡✐r ✐♥t❡♥❞❡❞ ♣✉r♣♦s❡s ✭s♦❝❝❡r✱ r✉♥♥✐♥❣✱ ❡t❝✮✱ t❤❡② ❞♦ ✇❡❧❧✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐♥ ❛♥② ♦t❤❡r ❝✐r❝✉♠st❛♥❝❡✱ ✐t ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❛s ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❣♦t ❧♦st ❢r♦♠ ❛ ❣②♠✲ ❛♥ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ✈❡r② ❜❛❞ ❧♦♦❦✳ ❆ ❧♦t ♦❢ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✐♥ ❊♥❣❧❛♥❞ t❡♥❞ t♦ ✇❡❛r t❤✐s ❧♦♦❦ ✭❢r♦♠ ✇❤❛t ■✬✈❡ s❡❡♥✮✲ s♦ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛ ❇r✐t ②♦✉ ❝♦✉❧❞ ♣✉❧❧ ✐t ♦✛✲ ❜✉t ■ ❞♦✉❜t ②♦✉ ❝♦✉❧❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❯❙❆✳ • ❚♦♠♠② ❇❛❤❛♠❛ ❚♦♠♠② ❇❛❤❛♠❛ ✐s ❛ ❝❧♦t❤✐❡r t❤❛t ♠❛❦❡s ❤✐❣❤ ❡♥❞ ❚r♦♣✐❝❛❧✲t❤❡♠❡❞ ✇❡❛r ✭t❤✉s t❤❡ ❇❛❤❛♠❛✮✳ ❚❤❡ ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ♦❢t❡♥ s❡❡♥ ❡✐t❤❡r s♦❧❞ ✐♥ s♣❡❝✐❛❧ r❡t❛✐❧ st♦r❡s ✭r❛r❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❯❙ ❛♥❞ ❈❛♥❛❞❛✮✱ ❛♥❞ s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s ✐♥ ✈❛r✐♦✉s ❞❡♣❛rt♠❡♥t st♦r❡s✳ ■t s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ♦❢ ♥♦t❡ t❤❛t ❚♦♠♠② ❇❛❤❛♠❛ st✉✛ ✐s ❛✐♠❡❞ ❛t ♦❧❞❡r ♠❡♥ ❛♥❞ ✇♦♠❡♥✱ ❡r❣♦ ♥♦t ②♦✉✳ • ❲✐❧s♦♥s ▲❡❛t❤❡r ❲✐❧s♦♥✬s ▲❡❛t❤❡r ✐s ✇❤❛t ✐t s❛②s ✐t ✐s✲ ❧❡❛t❤❡r✳ ■t ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧❧② st❛rt❡❞ ❛s ❇❡r♠❛♥✬s ▲❡❛t❤❡r✱ ❜✉t ❡✈❡♥t✉❛❧❧② ♠♦r♣❤❡❞ ✐♥t♦ ✇❤❛t ✐s ♥♦✇ ❦♥♦✇♥ ❛s ❲✐❧s♦♥✬s ▲❡❛t❤❡r✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♦♣❡r❛t❡s ❛ ❤❛♥❞❢✉❧ ♦❢ st♦r❡s ♥❛t✐♦♥✇✐❞❡✳ ❚❤✐s ❝♦♠♣❛♥② s❡❧❧s ❧❡❛t❤❡r ❝♦❛ts✱ ❤❛♥❞❜❛❣s✱ s❤♦❡s✱ ❛♥❞ ❣❧♦✈❡s✲ ❜✉t ❛❧s♦ t❡♥❞s t♦ ❞❛❜❜❧❡ ✐♥ ♦t❤❡r ❛r❡❛s✳ ✷✵ ✕ ❋♦r t❤❡ ♠♦st ♣❛rt✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦ ❣♦♦❞ ♦r ❜❛❞ ❛❜♦✉t t❤✐s ❝♦♠♣❛♥②✳ ▲❡❛t❤❡r ❏❛❝❦❡ts ❛r❡ ❢❛✐r❧② ✢❡①✐❜❧❡ ❜❡✐♥❣s✱ s♦ t❤❡② ❝❛♥ ✇♦r❦ ❢♦r ♠❛♥② ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❦✐♥❞s ♦❢ st②❧❡s✳ ❏✉st t❡st t❤❡✐r st✉✛ ♦✉t✱ ❜✉t ✇❛t❝❤ ♦✉t✲ ❧❡❛t❤❡r st✉✛ ✐s ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡✳ ❇✐❣ ◆❛♠❡s ✐♥ ❋❛s❤✐♦♥ ❇✐❣ ♥❛♠❡s ✐♥ ❢❛s❤✐♦♥ ❛r❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ♦r ❜r❛♥❞s ✭s✉❝❤ ❛s ❍✉❣♦ ❇♦ss t❤❛t ❛r❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ✈✐❡✇✱ ❜✉t ❞♦ ♥♦t ❤❛✈❡ st♦r❡s ♣❡r s❡✮✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✴❜r❛♥❞s ♠❛② ♦r ♠❛② ♥♦t ❜❡ ❛✈❛✐❧❛❜❧❡ ✐♥ st♦r❡s✱ ♦r ♠❛② ♦♥❧② ❜❡ ✐♥ ♠♦r❡ ✉♣s❝❛❧❡ ❛r❡❛s ✭s✉❝❤ ❛s ❜✐❣❣❡r ♠❛❧❧ st♦r❡s ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✮✳ ❖❜✈✐♦✉s❧②✱ t❤❡s❡ ❜r❛♥❞s ❛r❡ ♠✉❝❤ ♠♦r❡ ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡✿ ❇r♦♦❦s ❇r♦t❤❡rs ❈♦❛❝❤ ●✐♦r❣✐♦ ❆r♠❛♥✐ ❍♦✉s❡ ♦❢ ❈❤❛♥❡❧ ❍✉❣♦ ❇♦ss ❘❛❧♣❤ ▲❛✉r❡♥ ✷✶ ✸ ❊①❡r❝✐s❡ ❲♦r❦✐♥❣ ♦✉t ✐s ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❤❛r❞✳ ◆♦✱ ■ ♠❡❛♥ ✐t✳ ▼❛♥② ♣❡♦♣❧❡✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✇♦♠❡♥✱ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❝❡rt❛✐♥ ❞❡❣r❡❡ ♦❢ ❢❡r✈♦r✱ ❡①❝✐t❡❞❧② tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ♣✉♠♣ t❤❡ ♠♦st ♦✉t ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ❜♦❞✐❡s✱ t♦ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❧❡❛♥❡r✱ ❢❛st❡r✱ ❛♥❞ ♠♦r❡ t♦♥❡❞✳ ❇✉t t❤❛t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❛❧✇❛②s ✇♦r❦ ✲ ✇✐t❤ ❜✉❧❧s❤✐t ❞✐❡ts ❛♥❞ ❝r❛♣♣② ✇♦r❦♦✉t ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡s ❛❧❧ ♦✈❡r ❆♠❡r✐❝❛ ❛♥❞ ❊✉r♦♣❡✱ ✐t✬s ❤❛r❞ t♦ ✜❣✉r❡ ♦✉t ✇❤❛t ✇♦r❦s✳ ❏♦❤♥ ❇❛s❡❞♦✇ ❤❛❞ ❜❡❛t❡♥ t❤❡ ♦❞❞s ❛♥❞ ♠❛❞❡ ❋✐t♥❡ss ♠❛❞❡ ❙✐♠♣❧❡✱ ❜✉t t❤✐s ❤❛s ♥♦t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❞♦ ✇✐t❤ ❛♥② ♦❢ t❤✐s✳ ❇✉t ❛s ❛ ❣✉②✱ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ✐t ✧❡❛s②✧ ✐♥ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ r❡❧② ♦♥ ✈❡r② s✐♠♣❧❡ t❤✐♥❣s ✐♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ❜✉✐❧❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✉♣✳ ❲♦♠❡♥ ❤❛✈❡ ♥❛st② ❣❡♥❡s t❤❛t ✐♥❤✐❜✐t ✇❡✐❣❤t ❧♦ss ❢♦r ♣r♦♠♦t✐♥❣ ❝❤✐❧❞❜✐rt❤ ✭❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❛ ❜✐t ♦❢ ❢❛t ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ❝❤✐❧❞r❡♥ ❡❛s✐❡r✳✳✳ ♥✉tr✐❡♥ts ❛♥❞ s✉❝❤✮✳ ❆s ❛ ❣✉②✱ ❛❧❧ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ✇♦rr② ❛❜♦✉t ❛r❡ t❤❡ ✧❇✐❣ ❚❤r❡❡✧✿ ✶✳ ▼✉s❝❧❡ ❚♦♥❡ ✷✳ ❙t❛♠✐♥❛ ❛♥❞ ❊♥❡r❣② ✸✳ ❲❡✐❣❤t ❛♥❞ ❖✈❡r❛❧❧ ❍❡❛❧t❤ ❙♦ ✇✐t❤ t❤❛t✱ t❤✐s s❡❝t✐♦♥ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❜r♦❦❡♥ ✉♣ ✐♥ t❤❛t ✇❛② ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ❡✈❡r② ♦♥❡ ♦❢ t❤♦s❡ t❤r❡❡ ✐s ❦❡② t♦ ❜✉✐❧❞✐♥❣ ❛ str♦♥❣ ❜♦❞②✳ ✸✳✶ ▼✉s❝❧❡ ❚♦♥❡ ▼✉s❝❧❡ ❚♦♥❡ ✐s t❤❡ s✐③❡ ❛♥❞ str❡♥❣t❤ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ♠✉s❝❧❡s✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡❞ ❜② ♣❧❛✐♥ ♦✉t ✇❡✐❣❤t ❧✐❢t✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡s s✉❝❤ ❛s t❤❡ ❍✐♥❞✉ ❙q✉❛t ✲ ♥♦ r✉♥♥✐♥❣✱ ♥♦ s✇✐♠♠✐♥❣✱ ♥♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ▼✉s❝❧❡ ❚♦♥❡ ✐s ✇❤❛t ♠❛❦❡s ❜✐❣ ✧♠❛♥❧② ♠❡♥✧ ❧✐❦❡ ❙②❧✈❡st❡r ❙t❛❧❧♦♥❡ ❛♥❞ ❆r♥♦❧❞ ❙❝❤✇❛r③❡♥❡❣❣❡r ✇❤♦ t❤❡② ❛r❡✳ ▼✉s❝❧❡ ❚♦♥❡ ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❜✐❣✱ ❜✉❧❦②✱ ❛♥❞ s❝❛r② ✲ ❜✉t ✐t ❝❛♥ ❛❧s♦ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛♥ ✐❞✐♦t ✉♥❧❡ss ②♦✉ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ r✐❣❤t✳ ❑♥♦✇ ②♦✉r ▼✉s❝❧❡s ❨♦✉r ♠✉s❝❧❡s ❛r❡ ❛❧❧ ♦✈❡r ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ✲ ♥♦t ❥✉st ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❝❤❡st✱ t❤✐❣❤s✱ ♦r ❜✐❝❡♣s✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❛ ✈❡r② ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t ❧❡ss♦♥✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ♠✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❝❛r✱ ❤❛✈✐♥❣ ♦♥❡ s♣❡❝✐✜❝ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ✐♥s❛♥❡❧② str♦♥❣ ❞♦❡s ♥♦t ♠❡❛♥ t❤❛t ②♦✉r ✇❤♦❧❡ ❜♦❞② ✇✐❧❧ ❣♦ ❜❡tt❡r✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛❧❧②✱ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❞♦ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣✱ ❢r♦♠ ②♦✉r s❤♦✉❧❞❡rs t♦ ②♦✉r ❧❡❣s✳ ❋♦r t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉ ✇❤♦ ♥❡❡❞ ❛ ❧✐t❡r❛❧ ❝♦✉♥t✱ t❤❛t ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t t❤❡ ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣ ♠✉s❝❧❡s ✇✐❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ t♦✱ ❛t s♦♠❡ ♣♦✐♥t ✐♥ ②♦✉r r♦✉t✐♥❡✱ ❜❡ ✧❤✐t✧ ❜② ❛♥ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ ❛♥❞ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣❡❞✿ • ❙❤♦✉❧❞❡rs ✭❨♦✉r ❞❡❧t♦✐❞s ❛♥❞ ②♦✉r ❚r❛♣❡③✐✉s✮ • ❚r✐❝❡♣s • ❇✐❝❡♣s • ❋♦r❡❛r♠s • ❨♦✉r ❜❛❝❦ • ❨♦✉r ❈❤❡st ✭P❡❝t♦r❛❧s✮ • ❨♦✉r ❧♦✇❡r ❜❛❝❦ ✭▲❛t✐ss✐♠✉s ❉♦rs✐✮ • ❨♦✉r ❛ss • ❊✈❡r② s✐♥❣❧❡ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❧❡❣s✳ ■t s♦✉♥❞s s❝❛r②✱ ❛♥❞ ✐t ✐♥✐t✐❛❧❧② ✇✐❧❧✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❛♥ ✐♥s❛♥❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ♠✉s❝❧❡s ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞②✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r✐♥❣ ❡❛❝❤ ♦♥❡ r❡q✉✐r❡s ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ♦♥❡ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ t♦ ❢✉❧❧② ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣✳ ❙♦ ❤♦✇ ❞♦ ②♦✉ ❞❡❛❧ ✇✐t❤ t❤✐s❄ ❚❤❡ ❛♥s✇❡r ✐s t♦ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣ ❛ r♦✉t✐♥❡ ❛♥❞ st✐❝❦ t♦ ✐t✳ ❆ r♦✉t✐♥❡ ✐s ❧✐t❡r❛❧❧② ❛ s❝❤❡❞✉❧❡ ♦❢ ✇❤❛t✲②♦✉✲❞♦✲✇❤❡♥✿ s♦♠❡ ♣r❡❢❡r ❞♦✐♥❣ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ♣❛rts ♦❢ t❤❡ ❜♦❞② ♦♥ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❞❛②s✱ s♦♠❡ ❞♦ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ st❛❣❣❡r ✐t ❛❧♦♥❣ t❤❡ ✇❡❡❦✳ ◆♦ ♠❛tt❡r ✇❤❛t✱ t❤❡ ♠♦st ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t t❤✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t ❛ s❝❤❡❞✉❧❡ ✐s ❣✐✈✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② t❤❡ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ ✐t ♥❡❡❞s✱ ❜✉t ❣✐✈✐♥❣ ✐t ✷✷ r❡st✐♥❣ t✐♠❡ s♦ ✐t ❞♦❡s ♥♦t ❦✐❧❧ ✐ts❡❧❢ tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ❣r♦✇✳ ❆ r♦✉t✐♥❡ r❡❛❧❧② ❞❡♣❡♥❞s ♦♥ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t ✐♥ ❧✐❢❡✳ ▲❡t ✉s t❛❦❡✱ ❢♦r ❡①❛♠♣❧❡✱ ❛ r❡❛❧❧② s❦✐♥♥② ♣❡rs♦♥ ✇❤♦ ✇❛♥ts t♦ ❜✉❧❦ ✉♣✳ ❇✉❧❦✐♥❣ ✉♣ ✐s ❤❛r❞✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ t❤✐♥ ❜♦❞② ✭②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ♦❜✈✐♦✉s❧② ✇❛♥ts t♦ ❜❡ t❤❛t ✇❛②✮✳ ❚❤✐s ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t ❤✐s ❢♦❝✉s ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ♦♥ ❡❛t✐♥❣ s♦♠❡ ✧♣♦✇❡r ❢♦♦❞s✧✱ ❤✐tt✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠❛✐♥ ♠✉s❝❧❡s ✇✐t❤ ❧♦✇ r❡♣❡t✐t✐♦♥s ❜✉t ❤✐❣❤ ✇❡✐❣❤t✱ ❛♥❞ ❣✐✈✐♥❣ ❤✐♠s❡❧❢ ♣❧❡♥t② ♦❢ r❡st ❛♥❞ t✐♠❡ t♦ ❜✉❧❦ ✉♣✳ ❇✉t ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛ ❜✐❣ ❣✉② ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ t♦ ❜✉❧❦ ✉♣ ❛♥❞ s❧✐♠ ❞♦✇♥✱ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛❧♠♦st t❤❡ ♦♣♣♦s✐t❡ ❥♦❜✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❞♦ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ❜✉❧❦② ✇❡✐❣❤t ❧✐❢t✐♥❣✱ ❜✉t ❛ ❜✐t ♠♦r❡ r❡♣s t♦ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉r ♠✉s❝❧❡s t❤❛t ❡①tr❛ ❡❞❣❡✱ ❛s t❤❡② ❛r❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② r❡❛❞② t♦ ❣r♦✇ ❛❧r❡❛❞②✳ ❖♥❡ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t t❤✐♥❣ ❢♦r ♠♦st ❜✐❣ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✐s ❡❛t✐♥❣ r✐❣❤t✱ ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❡❛s② ❝❤❛♥❝❡ t♦ ❣❛✐♥ ✇❡✐❣❤t ❛s t❤❡② ❜✉✐❧❞ t❤❡✐r ♠✉s❝❧❡s✳ ❚❤❛t ♠❡❛♥s ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ✈❡❣❡t❛❜❧❡s ❛♥❞ ♥♦t ♠✉❝❤ ❝❛r❜s ♦r ❢❛t✳ ❚❤✐s ♠❡❛♥s ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❞♦ r❡s❡❛r❝❤✳ ●♦ ♦✉t ♦♥ ❛ ❧✐♠❜ ♦♥ s♦♠❡ ❣♦♦❞ ✇❡✐❣❤t ❧✐❢t✐♥❣ ✇❡❜s✐t❡s ❛♥❞ r❡❛❞ ✇❤❛t t❤❡② ❤❛✈❡ t♦ s❛② ♦♥ t❤❡ s✉❜❥❡❝t✳ ❇✉✐❧❞ ✉♣ ❛♥ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ ♣❧❛♥✳ ❙t✐❝❦ t♦ ②♦✉r ❣✉♥s✳ ❖♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ♦♥❡✱ ❥✉st ❣❡t t♦ ✐t✲ ❞♦♥✬t ❧❡t ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❣❡t ❧❛③② ♦r ❡❛s✐❧② ❞✐str❛❝t❡❞✳ ❙♦♠❡t✐♠❡s✱ ✐t ✐s ❜❡st t♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❧ ♦❢ t❤✐s ✇✐t❤ ❛♥ ✐P♦❞ ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✱ ❥✉st t♦ ❞✐str❛❝t ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛♥❞ ❧❡t ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❜✉✐❧❞ t❤❡ ❡♥❡r❣② ✉♣✳ ❨♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❍❡r❝✉❧❡s ✐♥ ❛ ②❡❛r✱ ❜✉t ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❞❡✜♥✐t❡❧② s❡❡ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡♠❡♥t ✐❢ ②♦✉ st✐❝❦ t♦ ✐t✳ ❖♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ❣❡t t❤✐s ♣❧❛♥✱ ✜♥❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ♣❧❛❝❡ t♦ ❣♦✳ ❆♥❞ ❜② ✧❣♦✧✱ ■ ❞♦♥✬t ♠❡❛♥ ✧❣❡t ✶✵ ♣♦✉♥❞ ✇❡✐❣❤ts ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠❡ ❤♦♠❡✧✳ ❚❤❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ✇✐t❤ s✉❝❤ ❛ t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ♣r✐♠❛r✐❧② ♠❡♥t❛❧ ✲ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❛t ❤♦♠❡✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣❡t ❞✐str❛❝t❡❞ ❡❛s✐❧②✳ ❆s ✇❡❧❧✱ ②♦✉ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❝❛♥✬t ❛✛♦r❞ t❤❡ t❤♦✉s❛♥❞s ♦❢ ❞♦❧❧❛rs ✇♦rt❤ ♦❢ ♠✉s❝❧❡✲str❛✐♥✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐♣♠❡♥t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞✳ ●♦ t♦ ❛ ❜✐❣ ❣②♠ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❛r❡❛ ✲ ●♦❧❞✬s ●②♠✱ ❛ s♠❛❧❧❡r ❥♦✐♥t✱ ❛ s♣❛✴s♣♦rts ❝❧✉❜✱ ♦r ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ t❤❛t✳ ❚r② t♦ ❛✈♦✐❞ ♣❧❛❝❡s ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ ❢♦r ✇♦♠❡♥ ✲ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣♦ t♦ t❤♦s❡ ♦♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ❍❆❱❊ t❤❡ ♠✉s❝❧❡s✱ t❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣✐❝❦ ✉♣ ✇♦♠❡♥ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❧✐♥t ❜r✉s❤ ♣✐❝❦s ✉♣ ❧✐♥t✳ ❆✈♦✐❞ ✧❙✉♣♣❧❡♠❡♥ts✧✱ ✧◗✉✐❝❦ ❧♦ss ❞✐❡ts✧✱ ❛♥❞ ❤♦♠❡ ✇❡✐❣❤t ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡s ❖♥❡ t❡♠♣t❛t✐♦♥ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❤❛✈❡ ✐s ✉s✐♥❣ ♣♦✇❞❡rs ❛♥❞ s✉♣♣❧❡♠❡♥ts t♦ ❛✉❣♠❡♥t t❤❡✐r ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ r♦✉t✐♥❡✳ ◆♦✳ ▼✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ s♥❛❦❡ ♦✐❧✱ s✉♣♣❧❡♠❡♥ts ❛♥❞ ♣♦✇❞❡rs ❛r❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ✉s❡❧❡ss✳ ▼❛♥② ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✇✐❧❧ t❡❧❧ ②♦✉ t❤❛t ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ✐♥t❛❦❡ ❛ t♦♥ ♦❢ ♣r♦t❡✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s tr✉❡✱ ❡①❝❡♣t t❤❡② ♠❛② ✧❢♦r❣❡t✧ t♦ t❡❧❧ ②♦✉ t❤❛t t❤❡ ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ✐s ❛❧r❡❛❞② ✐♥t❛❦✐♥❣ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ❢♦r ❣r♦✇t❤✳ ❚❤✐s ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t ❛s ❧♦♥❣ ❛s ②♦✉ ❡❛t ❤❡❛❧t❤② ❛♥❞ tr② t♦ ♠❛❦❡ s✉r❡ ②♦✉ ❡❛t ✧❣♦♦❞✧ ❢♦♦❞✱ ❤❛✈✐♥❣ t♦ ❞r✐♥❦ ❛ ❜❧❡♥❞ ♦❢ ✇❤❡② ❛♥❞ ❡❣❣s ✇✐❧❧ ♥♦t r❡❛❧❧② ♠❛tt❡r✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s r❡❛❧❧② ❛ ❜✉❧❧s❤✐t s❝❛♠ t♦ tr✐❝❦ ②♦✉ ✐♥t♦ ♣❛②✐♥❣ ✩✺ ❛ ❜♦tt❧❡ ❢♦r ❛ s❤✐tt② ❧✐tt❧❡ ❥♦❦❡ ♦❢ ❛ ❞r✐♥❦✳ ❇✉t ❤❡②✱ ✇❤✐❧❡ ✇❡✬r❡ ♦♥ t❤❡ s✉❜❥❡❝t✱ t❤❡ ✇❡✐❣❤t ❧✐❢t✐♥❣ ✇♦r❧❞ ✐s ❢✉❧❧ ♦❢ s❝❛♠s ✲ ❛♥❞ ❢♦r ❣♦♦❞ r❡❛s♦♥✱ ✐t ✐s ❜② ❢❛r ♦♥❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♠♦st ❝♦♠♣❡t✐t✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ ❤❛r❞✲t♦✲❡♥❞✉r❡ t❤✐♥❣s t❤❡r❡ ✐s✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ t✇♦ ♦t❤❡r ♠❛✐♥ ✇❛②s t❤❛t ♣❡♦♣❧❡ tr② t♦ s❝❛♠ ♣♦t❡♥t✐❛❧ ❜♦❞② ❜✉✐❧❞❡rs ✲ ♥❛♠❡❧②✱ ◗✉✐❝❦ ▲♦ss ❉✐❡ts ❛♥❞ ❤♦♠❡ ✇❡✐❣❤t ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡s✳ ❚❤❡ ❢♦r♠❡r ✐s ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ✇❤❛t ✐s ♠❛r❦❡t❡❞ ❛t ♦❧❞ ✇♦♠❡♥ ✷✹✴✼✲ ❧♦s✐♥❣ ✻✵ ♣♦✉♥❞s ✐♥ ❛ ✇❡❡❦ ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ❞✐❡ts✱ ✇❤✐❧❡ t❤❡② s♦✉♥❞ ❢❛♥❝② ❛♥❞ s♦♣❤✐st✐❝❛t❡❞✱ ♦♥❧② r❡❛❧❧② ✇♦r❦ ✇✐t❤ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡✳ ◆❊❱❊❘ ✇✐❧❧ ②♦✉ s❡❡ t❤❡s❡ t❡sts ✭✧■ ❧♦st ✸✵ ♣♦✉♥❞s ✇✐t❤ t❤✐s ❞✐❡t ❛♥❞ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡✦✧✮ t❡st❡❞ ❛❣❛✐♥st ❛ ❝♦♥tr♦❧ s❛♠♣❧❡✱ ♠❡❛♥✐♥❣ t❤❛t t❤❡ ✸✵ ♣♦✉♥❞s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❡①❛♠♣❧❡ ■ ❣❛✈❡ ♠❛② ❤❛✈❡ ❜❡❡♥ ✶✵✵✪ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ ❛♥❞ ✵✪ ❞✐❡t✳ ❏✉st ❞♦♥✬t ❞♦ ✐t✳ ❚❤❡ t❤✐r❞ ❛♥❞ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ♠♦st t❡♠♣t✐♥❣ t❤✐♥❣ ✐s t❤❡ t❤✐♥❣s ❦♥♦✇♥ ❛s ❤♦♠❡ ✜t♥❡ss ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡s✱ ♦r ✇❤❛t❡✈❡r t❤❡② ❝❛❧❧ t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s ♥♦✇✳ ❋r♦♠ ◆❛✉t✐❧✉s t♦ ❇♦✇✢❡①✱ ❛ t♦♥ ♦❢ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ♠❛r❦❡t t❤❡s❡ ❧✐tt❧❡ str❛♥❣❡ ❝♦♥tr❛♣t✐♦♥s t♦ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✱ s✇❡❛r✐♥❣ t♦ t❤❡♠ t❤❡② ❜✉✐❧❞ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ♠❛ss ❛♥❞ ❜✉r♥ ✇❡✐❣❤t✳ ❚❤❡ s❡❝r❡t ✐s t❤❛t t❤❡② ❉❖ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ❛ ✇♦r❦♦✉t✱ ❜✉t ♥♦t ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡ ♦♥❡✳ ❚❤❡ ❇♦✇✢❡① ✐s ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❡①❛♠♣❧❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s✱ ❜❡✐♥❣ ♦♥❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♠♦st ❧✐♠✐t❡❞ ♦❢ t❤❡♠ ❛❧❧✳ ❆s ✇❡❧❧✱ ✐t t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ ✈❡r② ❞❛♥❣❡r♦✉s ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❧❛❝❦ ♦❢ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❧❡❞ ♠♦✈❡♠❡♥ts✳ ❚❤❡ tr✉t❤ ✐s t❤❛t ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❞♦ ❡①❡r❝✐s❡✱ ❡✐t❤❡r ❣❡t s♦♠❡ r❡❛❧ ✧❙t❛❝❦✧ ✇❡✐❣❤t ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡s ❛♥❞ ❢r❡❡ ✇❡✐❣❤ts✱ ♦r ❣♦ t♦ ❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❣②♠ ❧✐❦❡ ●♦❧❞✬s ●②♠ ♦r ❛ s♠❛❧❧❡r ❥♦✐♥t✳ ❚❤♦s❡ ♣❧❛❝❡s t❡♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ ♠♦r❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❤❡♥s✐✈❡✱ ❞❡t❛✐❧❡❞✱ ❛♥❞ ❞❡✜♥✐t❡❧② ❜❡tt❡r✲ t❤❡② ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❡✈❡♥ ❤❛✈❡ ✜t♥❡ss tr❛✐♥❡rs t♦ ❤❡❧♣ ②♦✉✳ ✸✳✷ ❙t❛♠✐♥❛ ❛♥❞ ❊♥❡r❣② ❉❡s♣✐t❡ ✇❤❛t ❛♥✐♠❡ ♦r ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❡❧s❡ t❡❧❧s ②♦✉✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥♥♦t ❣❛✐♥ ❡♥❡r❣② ❜② ❝♦♥❝❡♥tr❛t✐♥❣✳ ❚❤❛t ✐s ♥♦t t❤❡ ✇❛②✳ ❙♦ ■✱ ❏❛✈❛✸✼✽✱ ✇✐❧❧ t❡❧❧ ②♦✉ ♦❢ ♠② ✇❛②✳ ❲❤②❄ ■ ❤❛✈❡ ❤❛❞ ❛ ✻✲♣❛❝❦ s✐♥❝❡ ✼t❤ ❣r❛❞❡ ❛♥❞ ❛♠ ❝✉rr❡♥t❧② st✐❧❧ ❣r♦✇✐♥❣ ✐♥ ❛♥ ✷✸ ❛❣❡ ✇❤❡r❡ ♠♦st ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❛r❡ ❣❛✐♥✐♥❣ ✉s❡❧❡ss ✇❡✐❣❤t✳ ❙t❛♠✐♥❛ t❤❡ ❏❛✈❛✸✼✽ ✇❛②✳ ▲✐❦❡ ✐♥ ✈✐❞❡♦ ❣❛♠❡s✱ ❙t❛♠✐♥❛ ✐s ❧✐❦❡ ❛♥ ❡♥❡r❣② ❜❛r✳ ❨♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ s❡t ❛♠♦✉♥t t❤❛t ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✉s❡❞✳ ❚❤✐s ❜❛r ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❧❡♥❣t❤❡♥❡❞ ♦r r❡❝❤❛r❣❡❞✳ ❚❤❡ ❦❡② t♦ st❛♠✐♥❛ ✐s ❞♦✐♥❣ r❡♣❡t✐t✐♦♥s✳ ❲❤❡t❤❡r ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ✉s✐♥❣ ✇❡✐❣❤ts ♦r ♥♦t✱ ♠♦✈✐♥❣ ❛ ♣❛rt ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ✇✐❧❧ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡ ✐t✬s ❢✉♥❝t✐♦♥✳ ❨♦✉r ❤❡❛rt✭❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✮ ✇✐❧❧ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡ ❛s ②♦✉ ✉s❡ ❡❛❝❤ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ♣❛rts✳ ❨♦✉ ♠✉st ❛❧s♦ ❜r❡❛t❤❡✳ ❚❛❦❡ s❡♠✐✲❞❡❡♣ ❜r❡❛t❤s ❛♥❞ r❡❧❡❛s❡ t❤❡♠✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t✳ ❚❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ♦①②❣❡♥ ②♦✉r ❤❡❛rt ❝❛♥ ♣✉♠♣✱ t❤❡ ❣r❡❛t❡r ❝❤❡♠✐❝❛❧ r❡❛❝t✐♦♥s ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞②✳ ❚❤✐s ♠❡❛♥s ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❣❛✐♥ ♠♦r❡ t❤✐s ✇❛②✳ ❚❤❡ ❜❡st ♣❛rt ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❞♦ ♥♦t ❤❛✈❡ ❛♥② ❡q✉✐♣♠❡♥t ✐s t♦ ❞♦ ♣✉s❤✉♣s✳ ●✉② ♣✉s❤✉♣s✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❞♦♥❡ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❜② ♣❧❛❝✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ❤❛♥❞s s❤♦✉❧❞❡r ❧❡♥❣t❤ ♦♥ t❤❡ ✢♦♦r✳ ❊①t❡♥❞ ②♦✉r ❧❡❣s ❜❡❤✐♥❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛♥❞ ❦❡❡♣ ②♦✉r ❢❡❡t t♦❣❡t❤❡r✳ ▲♦✇❡r ②♦✉r ❯♣♣❡r ❇♦❞② t♦ t❤❡ ✢♦♦r ✉♥t✐❧ ②♦✉r ❝❤✐♥ ✐s ❝❧♦s❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❣r♦✉♣✳ ▲✐❢t ②♦✉r ✉♣♣❡r ❜♦❞② ❜❛❝❦ ✉♣✳ ❋♦❧❧♦✇ t❤✐s ♣❧❛♥✿ ✶✳ ▼❛❦❡ ✉♣ ❛ ♥✉♠❜❡r ❢r♦♠ ✶✲✶✵✳ ✷✳ ❉♦ t❤✐s ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ♣✉s❤✉♣s ✐♥ ❛ r♦✇✳ ✸✳ ●❡t ♦♥ ✹❝❤❛♥✳ ✹✳ ❉♦ t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ♣✉s❤✉♣s ②♦✉ ❞✐❞ ✐♥ ❛ r♦✇✰✶✳ ✺✳ ❄❄❄❄❄ ✻✳ Pr♦✜t✳ ✼✳ ❘❡♣❡❛t✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ✐♠♣r❡ss ♠♦st ❝❤✐❝❦s ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❞♦ ✹✵ ✐♥ ❛ r♦✇ ❛♥❞ ✽✵✲✶✵✵ ❛ ❞❛②✳ ❨♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ ❜✐❣ ♠✉s❝❧❡s t❤❛t ❛r❡ ❤✐❣❤❧② ✈✐s✐❜❧❡✱ ❜✉t ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ✜❣❤t ✇❡❧❧✳ ❊♥❡r❣② ❊❛t ❢♦♦❞✳ ❊❛❝❤ ❢♦♦❞ ❤❛s ♥✉tr✐t✐♦♥❛❧ st❛t✐st✐❝s ♦♥ ❜❛❝❦✳ ■ ❞♦ ♥♦t ❦♥♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ❛❜♦✉t t❤✐s✳ P♦❦❡♠♦♥ ✐s ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❣✉✐❞❡ ❢♦r t❤✐s✳ ✭❊①✳ ❈❛❧❝✐✉♠ ❂ ❜♦♥❡s✮ ✸✳✸ ❲❡✐❣❤t ❛♥❞ ❖✈❡r❛❧❧ ❍❡❛❧t❤ ❉❡s♣✐t❡ ✇❤❛t r✐❣❤t✇✐♥❣ ♥✉t❥♦❜s s❛②✱ ❢❛t ✐s s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ♥❛t✉r❛❧ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❤✉♠❛♥ ❜♦❞②✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❣♦ ✐♥t♦ ❛♥② ❥✉♥❣❧❡ ❛♥❞ ❧♦♦❦ ❢♦r ♥❛t✐✈❡s✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ♥♦t✐❝❡ t❤❛t ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ ❜❡✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❤❡❛✈✐❧② ♠✉s❝❧❡❞ ♠❡♥ t❤❛t ♦♥❡ ❡①♣❡❝ts✱ ❛ ❧♦t ❛r❡ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② q✉✐t❡ ❢❛t✳ ❖✉r ❜♦❞✐❡s ❤❛✈❡ ❜❡❡♥ ♣r♦❞✉❝✐♥❣ ❢❛t ❡✈❡r s✐♥❝❡ ❢♦♦❞ ❤❛s ❡①✐st❡❞ ✲ ❛s ❛ ✇❛② t♦ ♥♦t ♦♥❧② st♦r❡ ❡♥❡r❣②✱ ❜✉t ❛s ❛ ✇❛② t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ♦✉rs❡❧✈❡s ✇❛r♠❡r ✐♥ ❝♦❧❞❡r ❝❧✐♠❛t❡s✳ ▼❛♥② t❤❡♦r✐③❡ t❤❛t t❤✐s ✐s ✇❤② ❊s❦✐♠♦ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ t❡♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ ♠♦r❡ ❤❡❛✈② s❡t t❤❛♥ ♦t❤❡rs✳ ❖✉r s♦❝✐❡t② ❤❛s ❞♦♥❡ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ♦❢ ❛ ✢✐♣✲✢♦♣ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧❛st ❢❡✇ ❝❡♥t✉r✐❡s r❡❣❛r❞✐♥❣ ❢❛t✳ ❖r✐❣✐♥❛❧❧②✱ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❢❛t ✇❛s ❛ttr✐❜✉t❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❜❡✐♥❣ r✐❝❤ ✲ t❤✉s ♠❛♥② ❦✐♥❣s ❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r ♥♦❜❧❡s ✇❡r❡ ✐♥t❡♥t✐♦♥❛❧❧② ❞r❛✇♥ t♦ ❜❡ ❢❛t ✭❜✉t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝❛s❡ ♦❢ ❍❡♥r② ❱■■■✱ ✐t ✇❛s ❥✉st t❤❛t ❤❡ ✇❛s ❛ ❢❛t ❢✉❝❦✮✳ ❇❡✐♥❣ ❢❛t ✇❛s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ ❜❡✐♥❣ ✇❡❛❧t❤②✱ ❛s ②♦✉ ❝♦✉❧❞ ❛✛♦r❞ ❢♦♦❞ t❤❛t ✇♦✉❧❞ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❢❛t✳ ❖♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ❤❛♥❞✱ ♥♦✇❞❛②s✱ ✇❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❜❡✐♥❣ ❢❛t ❛ ✇❡❛❦♥❡ss✳ ▲♦✇❡r ❝❧❛ss❡s ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❢❛t ✈❡r② q✉✐❝❦❧② ✭❛s ❝❤❡❛♣ ❢♦♦❞ t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ ✉♥❤❡❛❧t❤②✱ s✉❝❤ ❛s ▼❝❉♦♥❛❧❞s ❜✉r❣❡rs✮✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ r❡❛❧ s❤♦✇ ♦❢ ❛t❤❧❡t✐❝ ❛♥❞ s❡①✉❛❧ ❛❜✐❧✐t② ✐s t♦ ❜❡ s❦✐♥♥②✳ ❙♦✱ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧♦♥❣ r✉♥✱ ✐t✬s ❛ ✧s✉❝❦s t♦ ❜❡ ❢❛t✧ s♦❝✐❡t② ❛♥❞ ❞❡s♣✐t❡ ❛❧❧ ♦❢ t❤❡ ✧✐t✬s ♦❦❛② t♦ ❜❡ ②♦✉✧ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s❡♠❡♥ts ♦✉t t❤❡r❡✱ ②♦✉ ♣r❡tt② ♠✉❝❤ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❜❡ s❦✐♥♥② ❛♥❞ ❛t❤❧❡t✐❝ t♦ ❜❡ r❡s♣❡❝t❡❞✳ ❲❤② ♠❛♥❛❣❡ ②♦✉r ✇❡✐❣❤t ❛♥❞ ❤❡❛❧t❤❄ ❆ ❧♦t ♦❢ t✐♠❡s✱ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✇✐❧❧ ✐❣♥♦r❡ ✇❛r♥✐♥❣s ❛❜♦✉t s✉❝❤ t❤✐♥❣s ✇✐t❤ ❛r❣✉♠❡♥ts ❧✐❦❡ ✧■✬♠ s❦✐♥♥② ❛♥②✇❛②✧ ♦r ✧■ ❝❛♥✬t ❧♦s❡ t❤❡ ✇❡✐❣❤t✧✳ ❊✈❡♥ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ t❤❡ s❦✐♥♥✐❡st ♣❡rs♦♥ ✐♥ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞✱ ✐t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❧② ♠❡❛♥ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ r✉♥ ♦✛ ❛♥❞ ❡❛t ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t ❛♥❞ ❡♥❥♦② t❤❡ s❧❡♥❞❡r ✜❣✉r❡✲ ✐♥ ❢❛❝t✱ ✐t ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ✇♦rr② ▼❖❘❊ ❛❜♦✉t ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ❡❛t✳ ■♥ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❛ ❢❡✇ r❡❛s♦♥s ✇❤② ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ✇♦rr② ❛❜♦✉t ②♦✉r ✇❡✐❣❤t✴✜❣✉r❡✿ ✷✹ ✶✳ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ ❧✐✈❡ ❧♦♥❣❡r✳ ▲✐✈✐♥❣ ❢❛st ❛♥❞ ❞②✐♥❣ ②♦✉♥❣ ✐s ♦♥❧② ♣r♦♠♦t❡❞ ❜② t❤♦s❡ st✉♣✐❞ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ t♦ ❣❡t ❦✐❧❧❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss✳ ❆s t❤❡ ❧✐♥❡ ❣♦❡s✱ ✧■✬❞ r❛t❤❡r s♣❡♥❞ ❛♥ ❤♦✉r ❛ ❞❛② ❡①❡r❝✐s✐♥❣ t❤❛♥ s♣❡♥❞ ✷✹ ❤♦✉rs ❛ ❞❛② ❞❡❛❞✧✳ ✷✳ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ ❢❡❡❧ ❜❡tt❡r ❛♥❞ ❜❡ ♠♦r❡ ❡♥❡r❣❡t✐❝✳ ❆ str♦♥❣ ✐♥❞✐❝❛t♦r ♦❢ ❛ ❢✉t✉r❡ s✉❝❝❡ss ✐s s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ✇❤♦ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❞♦❡s ❡①❡r❝✐s❡✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ✐t ❣✐✈❡s t❤❡♠ t❤❡ ❡♥❡r❣② t♦ t❛❦❡ ♦♥ ♦t❤❡r t❛s❦s✳ ❲♦r❦ ❜❡❝♦♠❡s ❡❛s✐❡r✱ ♣❧❛② ❜❡❝♦♠❡s ♠♦r❡ ❡①❝✐t✐♥❣✱ s❡① ♠✉❝❤ ♠♦r❡ ❣r✐♣♣✐♥❣✳ ✸✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ str♦♥❣❡r ♦✈❡r❛❧❧✳ ❨♦✉r ♠✉s❝❧❡s r❡q✉✐r❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t ❢♦♦❞ t♦ ♦♣❡r❛t❡ ✐♥ ❛ ❞❡❝❡♥t ♠❛♥♥❡r✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✇❡❛❦✱ ✐t ♠❛② ❜❡ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❞✐❡t✳ ✹✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ s❦✐♥♥② ❛♥❞ ♠✉❝❤ s❡①✐❡r✳ ■ ❞♦♥✬t ❝❛r❡ ❤♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ❚❱ t❡❧❧s ②♦✉✿ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛t❤❧❡t✐❝ ❛♥❞ ❤❡❛❧t❤② ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ✇❡t ♣❛♥t✐❡s✱ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ❤♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ s❛② ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡✳ ✺✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ ♠♦r❡ s❡❧❢ ❝♦♥✜❞❡♥❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥tr♦❧✳ ❇❡✐♥❣ ♠✉s❝✉❧❛r ❛♥❞ t❛❧❧ ♠❡❛♥s t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❣❡t ❢✉❝❦❡❞ ✇✐t❤✳ ❇❡❝❛✉s❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✇✐❧❧ ❦♥♦✇ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ s♥❛♣ t❤❡✐r ♥❡❝❦✳ ✻✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣❡t ❛✇❛② ✇✐t❤ ♠♦r❡ ❣❡❡❦② s❤✐t ❛r♦✉♥❞ ❣✐r❧s✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡♥✬t ❣r❡❛s② ❤❛✐r❡❞ ❛♥❞ st✉♣✐❞ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣✱ ❣✐r❧s ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ♠♦r❡ ❧✐❦❡❧② t♦ ✐❣♥♦r❡ ②♦✉r ♦❜s❡ss✐♦♥ ❛❜♦✉t ❞r②❤✉♠♣✐♥❣ ❛ ❙✉③✉♠✐②❛ ❍❛r✉❤✐ ❞♦❧❧✳ ❙❡r✐♦✉s❧②✳ ❙♦ ♦❜✈✐♦✉s❧②✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ s♦♠❡ ❞❛♠♥ ❣♦♦❞ r❡❛s♦♥s t♦ ❜❡ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❜♦② ❛♥❞ t❛❦❡ ②♦✉r ✈✐t❛♠✐♥s ❛♥❞ ❞♦ ❝❛r❞✐♦ ✇♦r❦♦✉ts✱ ❛♥❞ ❜✉✐❧❞ s♦♠❡ s❡r✐♦✉s ♠✉s❝❧❡✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❛t ❜❡✐♥❣ s❛✐❞✱ ❧❡t✬s ❣❡t ❞♦✇♥ t♦ t❤❡ ✈❡r② ❜❛s✐❝s✳ ❚❤❡ ❇❛s✐❝s✿ ❲❤❛t ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❞♦ ❊❱❊❘❨ ❉❆❨ ❊✈❡r② ❞❛②✱ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❢❛✐❧✱ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❞♦ t❤❡ ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣✳ ❊✈❡♥ ❞♦✐♥❣ ❖◆❊ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ✐s ❛ ♠❛❥♦r tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥✲ ❞♦✐♥❣ t❤❡♠ ❛❧❧ ✇✐❧❧ ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ②♦✉ ✐♥ ✇❛②s ②♦✉ ♥❡✈❡r t❤♦✉❣❤t ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡✳ • ❚❛❦❡ ❱✐t❛♠✐♥s ✲ ❈❡♥tr✉♠ ♦r s✐♠✐❧❛r✳ ❚❛❦❡ r❡❣✉❧❛r ♠✉❧t✐✈✐t❛♠✐♥s ❞❛✐❧② ❛♥❞ ②♦✉r ✇❤♦❧❡ ❜♦❞② ✇✐❧❧ ♦♣❡r❛t❡ ❛♥❞ ❤❡❛❧ ❜❡tt❡r✳ ❨♦✉r ❤❛✐r ❛♥❞ ✜♥❣❡r♥❛✐❧s ✇✐❧❧ ❣r♦✇ ❧♦♥❣❡r✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❛ s✐❣♥ ♦❢ ❣♦♦❞ ❤❡❛❧t❤✳ • ❘✉❜ ❧♦t✐♦♥ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞②✳ ❊s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ②♦✉r ❛r♠s ❛♥❞ ❝❤❡st✱ ❊❙P❊❈■❆▲▲❨ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ✇❡✐❣❤t ❧✐❢t✳ ❚❤✐s ♣r❡✈❡♥ts str❡t❝❤ ♠❛r❦s ❢r♦♠ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ❣r♦✇t❤✱ ❛♥❞ ❛❧s♦ ❣✐✈❡s ②♦✉ s✉♣♣❧❡ ♠❛♥✲s❦✐♥✳ ❙❤❡❛ ❇✉tt❡r ❧♦t✐♦♥ t❡♥❞s t♦ ❜❡ t❤❡ ❜❡st✳ • ✸✵ ♠✐♥✉t❡s t♦ ♦♥❡ ❤♦✉r ♦❢ ❝❛r❞✐♦✳ ❋♦r ❡①❛♠♣❧❡✱ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❣❡t ❤♦♠❡✱ r✉♥ ♦♥ ❛ tr❡❛❞♠✐❧❧ ✭♦r ❥✉st ❣♦ t♦ t❤❡ ❣②♠✮✳ ❖♥❡ ❤♦✉r ♦❢ ❝❛r❞✐♦ ✇✐❧❧ s❤❛✈❡ ♣♦✉♥❞s ❧✐❦❡ ❝r❛③②✳ ❙②s♦♣ t❡st❛♠❡♥t✿ ◆♦t ❦✐❞❞✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t t❤✐s ✇❤♦❧❡ ❝❛r❞✐♦ t❤✐♥❣✳ ❲❤❡♥ ■ st❛rt❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❡❣❡✱ ■ ✇❡✐❣❤❡❞ ❛❜♦✉t ✷✺✵✲✷✻✵ ❧❜s ✭♣r♦♥❡ t♦ ✢✉❝t✉❛t❡✮✳ ❆❢t❡r ♥❡❛r❧② ✷ ②❡❛rs ♦❢ ❥✉st ❜✐❦✐♥❣ t♦ ❝❧❛ss ❡❛❝❤ ❞❛②❀ ✺ ♠✐❧❡s r♦✉♥❞ tr✐♣✱ ✸ t✐♠❡s ❛ ❞❛② ✭s❤✐tt② ❝❧❛ss s❝❤❡❞✉❧❡✮✱ ■✬♠ ❞♦✇♥ t♦ ✷✵✹ ❧❜s✱ st✐❧❧ ❞r♦♣♣✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ✐ts ♥♦✇ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ♠❛ss✳ ■✬♠ ♥♦ ❛t❤❧❡t❡✱ ❜✉t ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ❣❡ts ✉s❡ t♦ ❜❡✐♥❣ r❡q✉✐r❡❞ t♦ ♣❡r❢♦r♠ ✭■❊ ❜✐❦❡ t♦ ❝❧❛ss ♦r ✢✉♥❦ ♦✉t✮ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞②✬s ♦✇♥ ♥❛t✉r❛❧ r❡s✐st❛♥❝❡ st❛rts t♦ s❧✐♣ ❛✇❛②✳ ■✬♠ ♥♦t ♣r♦♠✐s✐♥❣ r✉♥♥❡rs ❤✐❣❤✱ ❜✉t ✐t ❞♦❡s ❣❡t ❡❛s✐❡r✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❧♦s❡ ❛ ❚❖◆ ♦❢ ✇❡✐❣❤t✳ ♣❧✉s ♥♦t ❤❛✈✐♥❣ t♦ ❝❛rr② ❛r♦✉♥❞ ❛♥ ❡①tr❛ ✷✵✪ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ✇❡✐❣❤t ❥✉st ❢❡❡❧s ❣r❡❛t✳ ✲❙❛r❛❢❛♥ • ❉r✐♥❦ ✸ ❇■● ❝✉♣s ♦❢ ✇❛t❡r ♦r ✢❛✈♦r❡❞ ✇❛t❡r ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✱ ◆❖ ❙❯●❆❘✳ ❚❤✐s ✇✐❧❧ ✢✉s❤ ②♦✉r s②st❡♠ ♦✉t✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦r ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ ❤❡❛❧t❤✳ ■t ❛❧s♦ ❣❡ts r✐❞ ♦❢ ✇❛t❡r ✇❡✐❣❤t✳ • ❊❛t ❛t ❧❡❛st ✷✲✺ s❡r✈✐♥❣s ♦❢ ✈❡❣❡t❛❜❧❡s ❛♥❞ ❢r✉✐ts✳ ▼❛♥② ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❞♦♥✬t ❞♦ t❤✐s ❛♥②♠♦r❡✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❛❧s♦ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ s♦✉r❝❡ ♦❢ ✈✐t❛♠✐♥s✳ • ❋✉❝❦✐♥❣ s❧❡❡♣✳ ●❡tt✐♥❣ ✺ ❤♦✉rs ♦❢ s❧❡❡♣ ❡❛❝❤ ♥✐❣❤t ✇✐❧❧ ❦✐❧❧ ②♦✉r r♦✉t✐♥❡✱ ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ✇❡❛❦ ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ str♦♥❣✳ ■ ❦♥♦✇ t❤✐s ✐s ❛ ❧♦t✳ ■♥ t♦t❛❧✱ t❤✐s ✐s ❛❜♦✉t ❛♥ ❤♦✉r ❛♥❞ ❛ ❤❛❧❢ ♦❢ ✇♦r❦ ❛ ❞❛②✳ ❖♥❡ ❤♦✉r ♦❢ t❤✐s ✭t❤❡ ❝❛r❞✐♦✮ ✐s t❤❡ ♦♥❧② t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ✇✐❧❧ ❞r❛st✐❝❛❧❧② ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ②♦✉r s❝❤❡❞✉❧❡✱ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❡❧s❡ ✐s r❡❛❧❧② ✉♣ t♦ ②♦✉r ❞✐s❝r❡t✐♦♥✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❡❛s② r♦✉t✐♥❡ st✉✛✱ ❛♥❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣❡t ✐t ❞♦✇♥✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ s❛✈❡ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ tr♦✉❜❧❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❢✉t✉r❡✳ ✷✺ ❚❤❡ ❋♦♦❞✿ ❲❤❛t t♦ ❡❛t✲ ❛♥❞ ✇❤❛t ♥♦t t♦ ❡❛t ❲❍❆❚ ❚❖ ❊❆❚✴❉❘■◆❑ • ❙❛❧❛❞ ❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r ❣r❡❡♥s✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s t❤❡ ❝❤❡❛♣ ❛♥❞ ❡❛s② st❛♣❧❡ ♦❢ ❛❜ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t✳ • ▲❡❛♥ ♠❡❛ts ❛♥❞ ❝❤❡❡s❡s✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ♣r♦t❡✐♥ ❛♥❞ ✈✐t❛♠✐♥s✳ • ❲❤❡❛t ❜r❡❛❞ ❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r ✇❤❡❛t ♣r♦❞✉❝ts✳ ■♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ ❣r❛♥♦❧❛✳ ❚❤✐s st✉✛ r✉❧❡s✳ • ❋r✉✐ts✳ ◆❛t✉r❛❧❧② s✇❡❡t ❛♥❞ ❡❛s② t♦ ♣r♦❝✉r❡✳ ❚❤❡② ♠❛❦❡ ❣r❡❛t ❜r❡❛❦❢❛sts✳ • ❙✉❣❛r❧❡ss ❈❡r❡❛❧✳ ❙✉❝❤ ❛s ♣❧❛✐♥ ❈❤❡① ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ t❤❛t✳ • ❆s✐❛♥ ❈✉✐s✐♥❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛✈♦✐❞ ❡❛t✐♥❣ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ r✐❝❡ ♦r ♥♦♦❞❧❡s✱ t❤✐s ✐s ❡①tr❡♠❡❧② ❤❡❛❧t❤② ❛♥❞ t❛st②✳ • ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧❧② s✇❡❡t❡♥❡❞ ❞r✐♥❦s✳ ❙♣❧❡♥❞❛ ✐s t❤❡ ♠❛❣✐❝ s✇❡❡t❡♥❡r ♦❢ ❛❧❧ s♦rts ♦❢ t❛st② t❤✐♥❣s✳ ❲❍❆❚ ◆❖❚ ❚❖ ❊❆❚✴❉❘■◆❑ • ❘❡✜♥❡❞ ✢♦✉rs ❛♥❞ s✉❣❛rs✳ ❚❤✐s ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡s ❆◆❨ s✉❣❛r✱ ✇❤✐t❡ ✢♦✉r✱ ❝r❛❝❦❡rs✱ t♦❛st✱ ♦r ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t✬s ♥♦t ✶✵✵✪ ✇❤♦❧❡ ✇❤❡❛t✳ • ❋r✐❡❞ ❢♦♦❞s✳ ●r❡❛s❡ ✐s ❜❛❞✳ ●r❡❛s❡ ✐s ✈❡r② ❜❛❞✳ • ❙♦❢t ❉r✐♥❦s ❚❤❡s❡ ♣✉t ♣♦✉♥❞s ♦♥ ❢❛st❡r t❤❛♥ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❡✈❡r ❦♥♦✇✳ • ❍❡❛✈② s❛✉❝❡s ❛♥❞ ♣❛st❛s✳ ❉r♦♣ t❤❡ ❋❡tt✉❝❝✐♥❡ ❆❧❢r❡❞♦ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❧✐❣❤t ♣❛st❛ ✇✐t❤ ❣❛r❧✐❝✳ ■♥ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✱ ♣❛st❛ ✐s ❜❛❞ ❛♥②✇❛②✲ s♦ ❡❛t ✐t s♣❛r✐♥❣❧②✳ • ❉❡ss❡rts✳ ❉❡ss❡rt ✐s ❛ ✈❡r② ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❝r❡❛t✐♦♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❤❛s ♠❛❞❡ ✉s ❛❧❧ ❢❛t✳ ◆♦✱ ②♦✉ ❞♦ ♥♦t ♥❡❡❞ s✇❡❡ts ❛❢t❡r ❡✈❡r② t✐♠❡ ②♦✉ ❡❛t✳ • ❈❛♥❞✐❡s✱ ❝♦♦❦✐❡s✱ ❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r s♥❛❝❦s✳ ❏✉st st♦♣ s♥❛❝❦✐♥❣✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t♦✱ ❡❛t ❣r❛♥♦❧❛ ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✳ • ❙t❛r❜✉❝❦s✳ ▼② ♦✇♥ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧ ✇❡❛❦♥❡ss✳ ■t✬s s✇❡❡t✱ ✐t✬s t❛st②✱ ❛♥❞ ✈❡r② ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡✳ Pr② ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛✇❛② ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ❝♦✛❡❡ ❝♦✉♥t❡r✳ ❋✉rt❤❡r ❘❡❛❞✐♥❣ ❊①❘① ✲ ❇❡st ❚r❛✐♥❋♦r❙tr❡♥❣t❤ ❤tt♣✿✴✴❜♦❞②❜✉✐❧❞✐♥❣✳❝♦♠ ❇♦❞②❜✉✐❧❞✐♥❣❞♦t❝♦♠ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✐♥t❡♥s❡✲✇♦r❦♦✉t✳❝♦♠ ■♥t❡♥s❡❲♦r❦♦✉t ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❤❛♣❡✜t✳❝♦♠ ❙❤❛♣❡❢✐t ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❡①r①✳♥❡t ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❢♦r ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ✇♦r❦♦✉t r❡❧❛t❡❞✳ ❤tt♣✿✴✴tr❛✐♥❢♦rstr❡♥❣t❤✳❝♦♠ ✷✻ ✹ ▼❛♥♥❡rs ❊✈❡r②♦♥❡ ♥❡❡❞s t♦ ❣❡t ♦✉t ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ❤♦✉s❡ ❡✈❡♥t✉❛❧❧②✳ ❯♥❧❡ss ②♦✉✬r❡ s♦♠❡ s♦rt ♦❢ s❝❤✐③♦♣❤r❡♥✐❝ ♣❡rs♦♥ ✇❤♦ ♦r❞❡rs ❛❧❧ ❤✐s st✉✛ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✱ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❣♦ ♣❧❛❝❡s t♦ ❣❡t ❢♦♦❞✱ s✉♣♣❧✐❡s✱ ♦r ❡✈❡♥ ❥✉st t♦ ❡♥❥♦② ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✳ ✹✳✶ ❚❤❡ ❲❛❧❦ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✇❛❧❦✐♥❣ ❞♦✇♥ t❤❡ str❡❡t✱ ✐♥s✐❞❡ ❛ st♦r❡✱ ❡t❝✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❛ ❢❡✇ r✉❧❡s ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞✳ ✶✳ ❲❛❧❦ ❛t ❛ r❡❛s♦♥❛❜❧❡ ♣❛❝❡✳ ◆♦ ♦♥❡ ❧✐❦❡s t♦ ❜❡ st✉❝❦ ❜❡❤✐♥❞ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥ t❤❛t ✐s s❤✉✤✐♥❣ ❞♦✇♥ t❤❡ s✐❞❡✇❛❧❦ ❛t ❛ ♣❛❝❡ t❤❛t ✇♦✉❧❞ ♠❛❦❡ ❛ s♥❛✐❧ ❜❧✉s❤✳ ✷✳ ❯♥❧❡ss ✐t✬s ❝♦❧❞ ♦✉t✱ ❞♦♥✬t ✇❛❧❦ ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ❤❛♥❞s ✐♥s✐❞❡ ②♦✉r ♣♦❝❦❡ts ✸✳ ❙tr❛✐❣❤t❡♥ ✉♣ ❛♥❞ ❦❡❡♣ ②♦✉r ❡②❡s ♦♥ t❤❡ ❤♦r✐③♦♥✱ ♦r ❛t ❧❡❛st ✇❤❡r❡ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❣♦✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ t❡rr✐❜❧❡ ♣♦st✉r❡ ❛♥❞ st❛r❡ ❛t t❤❡ ❣r♦✉♥❞ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ✇❛❧❦✱ ②♦✉ ❞♦ ❝♦♠❡ ♦✛ ❛s str❛♥❣❡✳ P❧✉s ②♦✉ ❝❛♥✬t ♦❣❣❧❡ t❤❡ ❢r❡❡ ❜♦♦❜s t❤❛t ❝♦♠❡ ❜② ②♦✉ ♦❝❝❛s✐♦♥❛❧❧②✳ ❇r♦❛❞❡♥ ②♦✉r s❤♦✉❧❞❡rs ❛♥❞ ✇❛❧❦ ❝♦♥✜❞❡♥t❧②✳ ✹✳ ■❢ t❤❡ s✐❞❡✇❛❧❦ ✐s ❝r♦✇❞❡❞ ❛♥❞ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ✐s ❝♦♠✐♥❣ t♦✇❛r❞ ②♦✉✱ st❡♣ t♦ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❯❙❆✱ ❈❛♥❛❞❛✱ ▼❛✐♥❧❛♥❞ ❊✉r♦♣❡✱ ❛♥② ❝♦✉♥tr② t❤❛t ❞r✐✈❡s ♦♥ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t✱ ♦r t❤❡ ❧❡❢t✱ ✐❢ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❯❑✱ ❆✉str❛❧✐❛✱ ❛♥② ❝♦✉♥tr② t❤❛t ❞r✐✈❡s ♦♥ t❤❡ ❧❡❢t✳ ✺✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❝♦♠❡ ✉♣ t♦ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥ t❤❛t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ✇❛❧❦ t♦♦ ❢❛st ✭❖❧❞ ❧❛❞✐❡s✱ s♠❛❧❧ ❝❤✐❧❞r❡♥✱ t❡❡♥❛❣❡rs ✇✐t❤ t❤❡✐r ♣❛♥ts ❛t t❤❡✐r ❛♥❦❧❡s✳✮ ❚r② t♦ ✇❛❧❦ ❛r♦✉♥❞ t❤❡♠ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❡❧❜♦✇✐♥❣ t❤r♦✉❣❤ t❤❡♠✳ ✻✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛ ❢r✐❡♥❞❧② ♣❡rs♦♥✱ ✇❤❡♥ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥ ♣❛ss❡s ②♦✉✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❛ ❢❡✇ ♦♣t✐♦♥s ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡✿ • • ◆♦❞ ❛♥❞ s♠✐❧❡ ❙❛② ✧●♦♦❞ ♠♦r♥✐♥❣✴❛❢t❡r♥♦♦♥✴❡✈❡♥✐♥❣✧ ◆❖❚❊✿ ❚❤✐s ✐s r❡str✐❝t❡❞ t♦ ♦♥❧② ✇❤❡♥ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥ ✐s ❝♦♠✐♥❣ ❛t ②♦✉✱ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♠❛❦❡ ❡②❡ ❝♦♥t❛❝t✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥♥♦t ♠❛❦❡ ❡②❡ ❝♦♥t❛❝t✱ ❞♦ ♥♦t s❛② ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣✳ ✹✳✷ ❙t❛♥❞✐♥❣ ✐♥ ❧✐♥❡ ❨♦✉✬r❡ ♥♦t ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❜❡ t❤❡ ♦♥❧② ♦♥❡ ✐♥ ❛ st♦r❡ t❤❛t ✇✐s❤❡s t♦ ❜✉② s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✳ ■❢ ✐t✬s ✐♥ ❛ ❣r♦❝❡r② ♦r ❇❡st ❇✉②✱ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❢♦❧❧♦✇ t❤❡ r✉❧❡s✳ ✶✳ ●✐✈❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ s♦♠❡ s♣❛❝❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣✐✈❡ t❤❡♠ ❛ ❜❡❛r ❤✉❣ ✇✐t❤♦✉t t❛❦✐♥❣ ❛ st❡♣ ♦r ❧❡❛♥✐♥❣ ✐♥✱ ②♦✉✬r❡ st❛♥❞✐♥❣ t♦♦ ❝❧♦s❡✳ ✷✳ ❇r❡❛t❤ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ②♦✉r ♥♦s❡✳ ◆♦ ♦♥❡ ❧✐❦❡s t♦ ❢❡❡❧ ❛ ✇❛r♠ ❜r❡❡③❡ ♦♥ t❤❡ ❜❛❝❦s ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ♥❡❝❦s✳ ✸✳ ❉♦♥✬t ♠❛❦❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛t✐♦♥ ✉♥❧❡ss s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ✐s t❛❧❦✐♥❣ t♦ ②♦✉✳ ✹✳ ❋♦r ❣♦❞✬s s❛❦❡✱ ❞♦♥✬t ✜❞❣❡t✳ ◆♦ ❢♦♦t t❛♣♣✐♥❣✱ ❝❤❡✇✐♥❣ ✜♥❣❡r♥❛✐❧s✱ s✉❝❦✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤❡ s♥♦t ✐♥ ②♦✉r ♥♦s❡✱ ❛❞❥✉st✐♥❣ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✱ ❡t❝✳ ✺✳ ▼❛❦❡ s✉r❡ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t st✐♥❦ ✭❙❡❡ ●r♦♦♠✐♥❣ ❣✉✐❞❡✮✳ ◆♦❜♦❞② ❧✐❦❡s t♦ ❜❡ ❜❡❤✐♥❞ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥ t❤❛t ❤❛s ❦✐❧❧❡r ❇❖✳ ✻✳ P❛② ❛tt❡♥t✐♦♥✳ ❑❡❡♣ ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞ ✇❤❡♥ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ❣♦❡s ❛❤❡❛❞ ♦❢ ②♦✉ s♦ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❦❡❡♣ t❤❡ ❧✐♥❡ ♠♦✈✐♥❣✳ ✼✳ ❉♦♥✬t st❛r❡ ❛t ❛♥②♦♥❡ ✐❢ t❤❡② ❝❛♥ ♥♦t✐❝❡ ✐t✳ ❑❡❡♣ ②♦✉r ❣❛③❡ ♠♦✈✐♥❣✱ s❦✐♣ ✐t ❛r♦✉♥❞ t❤❡ ❝❡✐❧✐♥❣✱ ❛r♦✉♥❞ t❤❡ s❤❡❧✈❡s✱ ❡t❝✳ ✽✳ ◆♦ t❛❧❦✐♥❣ ♦r ♠✉tt❡r✐♥❣ t♦ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✳ ✾✳ ◆♦ s✐♥❣✐♥❣✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❤✉♠✱ ❜✉t t❤❛t✬s ✐t✳ ✶✵✳ ◆♦ ✇❤✐st❧✐♥❣✳ ✶✶✳ ●❡t ②♦✉r s❤✐t t♦❣❡t❤❡r✳ ❆s ②♦✉ st❛♥❞ ✐♥ ❧✐♥❡✱ ❣❡t ②♦✉r ✇❛❧❧❡t ♦✉t ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡ s✉r❡ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❢✉♠❜❧❡ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ♣❛♥ts ❢♦r ❛ ♠✐♥✉t❡ t♦ ❣❡t ✐t ♦✉t✳ ✶✷✳ ◆♦ ♠❡ss✐♥❣ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ✇✐t❤ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉✬r❡ ❜✉②✐♥❣✳ ◆♦ ✢✐♣♣✐♥❣ ✐t ❛r♦✉♥❞✱ t♦ss✐♥❣ ✐t ❢r♦♠ ❤❛♥❞ t♦ ❤❛♥❞✳ ✷✼ ✹✳✸ ❈♦♥✈❡rs✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ❖t❤❡rs ■t✬s ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ str❛♥❣❡ ❢♦r ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥ t♦ ♥♦t s❛② ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡② ♣❛② ❢♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❛t ❛ st♦r❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ r❡❛❧❧② s❤② ♦r ❝❛♥✬t t❛❧❦ t♦ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ t❤❛t ✇❡❧❧✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ s♦♠❡ ❜❛s✐❝ r✉❧❡s ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❢♦❧❧♦✇✳ ✶✳ ❇❡ ♣♦❧✐t❡✳ ❙❛② ✬❚❤❛♥❦ ②♦✉✬ ♦r ✬❍❛✈❡ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❞❛②✴❡✈❡♥✐♥❣✬ ❛s ②♦✉ ✇❛❧❦ ❛✇❛②✳ ✷✳ ●r❡❡t t❤❡♠✳ ❆s ②♦✉ ✇❛❧❦ ✉♣ t♦ ❛ r❡❣✐st❡r✱ ❢♦r ❡①❛♠♣❧❡✱ ②♦✉ ❝♦✉❧❞ s❛② ✧❍❡❧❧♦✧✳ ✸✳ ❆s❦ t❤❡♠ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡✐r ❞❛②✳ ◆♦t ❛ ❢✉❧❧ ✐♥ ❞❡♣t❤ q✉❡st✐♦♥✱ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ s✐♠♣❧❡ ❧✐❦❡ ✧❍♦✇✬r❡ ②♦✉ ❞♦✐♥❣❄✧ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ ❣❡t ❛ ♦♥❡✲✇♦r❞ ❛♥s✇❡r ❧✐❦❡ ✧●♦♦❞✧✱ ❜✉t ✐ts ❛ ♥✐❝❡ t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❞♦✳ ✹✳ ❙♠✐❧❡✳ ✺✳ ■❢ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ❛s❦s ②♦✉ ❢♦r t❤❡ t✐♠❡✴❢♦r ❞✐r❡❝t✐♦♥s✱ ❛❣❛✐♥✱ ❜❡ ♥✐❝❡✳ ❆♥❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❦♥♦✇ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❣❡t t❤❡r❡✱ ❛❞♠✐t ✐t✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❣✐✈❡ t❤❡♠ ❜✉❧❧s❤✐t ❞✐r❡❝t✐♦♥s✳ ✻✳ ❑♥♦✇ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t✳ ■❢ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ❛s❦s ②♦✉ ✧❲❛♥t ❢r✐❡s ✇✐t❤ t❤❛t❄✧ ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦ t❤❛t ❡✛❡❝t✱ ❞♦♥✬t s✐t t❤❡r❡ ❞r♦♦❧✐♥❣ tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ❞❡❝✐❞❡✳ ❘✉❧❡ ♦❢ t❤✉♠❜✱ ✉s❡ ❛❜♦✉t ✜✈❡ s❡❝♦♥❞s ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥✳ ✹✳✹ ❊❛t✐♥❣ ❛t ❛ ❘❡st❛✉r❛♥t ■❢ ✐ts s✐♠♣❧② ❛ ▼❝❉♦♥❛❧❞s ♦r ❛ s✐t✲❞♦✇♥ r❡st❛✉r❛♥t ❧✐❦❡ ❙✐③③❧❡r✬s✱ t❤❡r❡ s♦♠❡ r✉❧❡s s♦ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❝♦♠❡ ♦✛ ❛s ❛♥ ❛ss❤♦❧❡ ❛♥❞ ❣❡t ②♦✉r ❢♦♦❞ s♣✐t ♦♥✳ ✶✳ ❇❡ ♥✐❝❡ t♦ ②♦✉r ✇❛✐t❡r✴✇❛✐tr❡ss✳ ❚❤❡②✬r❡ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❜✉st✐♥❣ t❤❡✐r ❛ss tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ❛ ❧✐✈✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡② ❞♦♥✬t ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ❛♥♦t❤❡r ❛ss❤♦❧❡ ♦♥ t❤❡✐r ❤❛♥❞s✳ ✷✳ ❙♠✐❧❡ ❛♥❞ t❤❛♥❦ t❤❡♠ ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡② ❜r✐♥❣ ②♦✉ t❤❡ ♠❡♥✉✳ ✸✳ ■♥ ❢❛❝t✱ t❤❛♥❦ t❤❡♠ ✇❤❡♥❡✈❡r t❤❡② ❞♦ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❢♦r ②♦✉✳ ❚❛❦✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ♦r❞❡r✱ t❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠❡♥✉✱ r❡✜❧❧✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❝♦✛❡❡✱ ❡t❝✳ ✹✳ ❙♣❡❛❦ ✉♣ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ s❛② ②♦✉r ♦r❞❡r✳ ❉♦♥✬t ♠✉♠❜❧❡ ♦✉t ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t✱ ❡♥✉♥❝✐❛t❡ ❝❧❡❛r❧②✳ ✺✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❜❡ ❛ s❧♦❜ ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ❢♦♦❞✳ ❉♦♥✬t s❧✉r♣ t❤❡ s♦✉♣✱ ❝❤❡✇ ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ♠♦✉t❤ ♦♣❡♥✱ ❡t❝✳ ❙t✉✛ t❤❛t ❧✐tt❧❡ ❦✐❞s ❤❛✈❡ ❛❧r❡❛❞② ♥❛✐❧❡❞ s❤♦✉❧❞ ♥♦t ❛♣♣❧② t♦ ②♦✉✳ ✻✳ ❚✐♣ t❤❡♠✳ ✶✺✪ ✐s ✉s✉❛❧❧② st❛♥❞❛r❞✱ ❜✉t ✐❢ t❤❡② ✇❡r❡ ❡①tr❛ ❤❡❧♣❢✉❧ ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✱ r❡✇❛r❞ t❤❛t✳ ■❢ t❤❡ ♠❡❛❧ ✇❛s ✜❢t② ❜✉❝❦s✱ ❣✐✈❡ t❤❡♠ ♥✐♥❡ ❜✉❝❦s ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ ✼✳✺✵✳ ❈♦♥✈❡rs❡❧②✱ ✐❢ t❤❡② ✇❡r❡ ❛ t♦t❛❧ s❤✐t ❥♦❜✱ ✉♥❞❡rt✐♣ t❤❡♠ ❛s ❛ s✐❣♥ t❤❛t t❤❡② ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❞♦ ❜❡tt❡r✳ ✼✳ ❇❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✳ ■❢ t❤❡ r❡st❛✉r❛♥t ✐s ❜✉s②✱ t❤❡② ♠✐❣❤t ♥♦t ❣❡t t♦ ②♦✉ ❛s ❢❛st ❛s ②♦✉ ♠✐❣❤t ❤♦♣❡✳ ❉♦♥✬t st❛rt s❤♦✉t✐♥❣ ❛t t❤❡♠ t♦ ❤✉rr② ✉♣✱ t❤❡② ❣♦t ♦t❤❡r ♣❡♦♣❧❡ t♦ ❛tt❡♥❞ t♦ ♦t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ②♦✉✳ ✽✳ ■❢ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ s♣✐❧❧s ♦r ❜r❡❛❦s✱ ❞♦♥✬t ❣❡t t♦♦ ✇♦r❦❡❞ ✉♣ ♦✈❡r ✐t✱ ❛♥❞ ❞♦♥✬t tr② t♦ t❛❦❡ ❛❞✈❛♥t❛❣❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ s✐t✉❛t✐♦♥ ❡✐t❤❡r✳ ■❢ t❤❡② ♦✛❡r ②♦✉r ♠❡❛❧ ❢r❡❡✱ t❛❦❡ ✐t✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ②♦✉r ♥❡①t ✜✈❡ ♠❡❛❧s ❢r❡❡ ♦❢ ❝❤❛r❣❡✳ ✹✳✺ ❆t ❚❤❡ ❚❤❡❛t❡r ✶✳ ❚r② ❛♥❞ s✐t ❛❜♦✉t ✼ s❡❛ts ❛✇❛② ❢r♦♠ ❛♥♦t❤❡r ♣❡rs♦♥✱ ❛♥❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ t❛❧❧✱ ❞♦♥✬t s✐t ✐♥ ❢r♦♥t ♦❢ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥ ✐❢ t❤❡r❡✬s r♦♦♠ ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐❢ t❤❡ t❤❡❛t❡r ✐s ❝r♦✇❞❡❞✱ ②♦✉ ♠✐❣❤t ♥♦t ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❝❤♦✐❝❡✳ ✷✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ♠❡❡t✐♥❣ ❛ ❣r♦✉♣ ♦❢ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ t❤❡r❡✱ ❞♦♥✬t ❜❡ ❧❛t❡✳ ◆♦❜♦❞② ❧✐❦❡s ❤❛✈✐♥❣ t♦ r✉s❤ t♦ ❜✉② ♣♦♣❝♦r♥ ❛♥❞ ❞r✐♥❦s✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❣❡t ❣♦♦❞ s❡❛ts✳ ✸✳ ❚❤❡ ❜❡st ♣❧❛❝❡ t♦ s✐t ✐s ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✱ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ t❤❡ t❤✐r❞ ❛♥❞ ❢♦✉rt❤ s❡ts ♦❢ s✉rr♦✉♥❞✲s♦✉♥❞ s♣❡❛❦❡rs✳ ❏✉st ❢♦r ❢✉t✉r❡ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡✳ ✹✳ ❚✉r♥ ②♦✉r ❣♦❞❞❛♠♥ ❝❡❧❧ ♣❤♦♥❡ ♦✛ ♦r ♣✉t ✐t ♦♥ ✈✐❜r❛t❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡❧② ❤❛✈❡ t♦ t❛❦❡ ❛ ❝❛❧❧✱ ❧❡❛✈❡ t❤❡ t❤❡❛t❡r ❛♥❞ t❛❧❦ ♦✉ts✐❞❡✳ ✷✽ ✺✳ ❉♦♥✬t t❛❧❦ t♦ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❚❤❡②✬r❡ ❥✉st tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ❡♥❥♦② t❤❡ ♠♦✈✐❡✳ ✻✳ ❉♦♥✬t ♠❛❦❡ ❛ ♠❡ss ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ❢♦♦❞✳ ❙♦♠❡♦♥❡ ❡❧s❡ ❤❛s t♦ ❝❧❡❛♥ t❤❛t ✉♣✳ ✼✳ ❚❤r♦✇ ❛✇❛② ②♦✉r s❤✐t ❛s ②♦✉ ❧❡❛✈❡✱ ❞♦♥✬t ❥✉st ❧❡❛✈❡ ✐t t❤❡r❡✳ ✽✳ ❆❧❧♦✇ ♦t❤❡r ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❜② ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬r❡ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ✇❛② ♦✉t✳ ✾✳ ❚r② ♥♦t t♦ ❣♦ t♦ t❤❡ t❤❡❛t❡r ❜② ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✳ ■t ❝r❡❡♣s ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ♦✉t s❡❡✐♥❣ s♦♠❡ ♥❡r❞② ❣✉② ❛❧♦♥❡ ✐♥ ❛ ❝❤✐❧❞r❡♥✬s ♠♦✈✐❡✳ ✷✾ ✺ ❊❛t✐♥❣ ■ ✉s❡❞ t♦ ❣❡t t❤❡ ❧♦♦❦s✳ ❨♦✉ ❦♥♦✇ ✇❤❛t ■ ❛♠ t❛❧❦✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t✳ P❡♦♣❧❡ ❧♦♦❦ ❛t ②♦✉ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ✇❛❧❦ ❜② ♦r ❡♥t❡r ❛ r♦♦♠ ❛♥❞ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ t❤✐s ❧♦♦❦ ♦❢ ❝♦♥t❡♠♣t✱ ♦❢ ❞✐s❣✉st✱ ♦❢ r❡♣✉❧s✐♦♥✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ✇❛❧❦ ❛ ✢✐❣❤t ♦❢ st❛✐rs✱ ②♦✉r ❤❡❛❞ ❜❡❝♦♠❡s ❛ r✐♣❡ ❉✉t❝❤ t♦♠❛t♦✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛❧♠♦st ❝♦❧❧❛♣s✐♥❣✳ ❨♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ s✐t ❞♦✇♥ t♦ ❛✈♦✐❞ ❛ ❜❧❛❝❦♦✉t✳ ◆♦✇ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ s❛r❞✐♥❡ ✐♥ ❛ t✐♥ ❜♦①✿ r♦❧❧s ♦❢ ❢❛t ❛r❡ str❡t❝❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥✬t t✉r♥ t♦ ❛♥② s✐❞❡ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ❢❛t ✐s ❜❧♦❝❦✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ♠✉s❝❧❡ ♠♦✈❡♠❡♥t✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❜❛r❡❧② ❢❛❝❡ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡② t❛❧❦ t♦ ②♦✉✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛s❤❛♠❡❞ ♦❢ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✳ ❊✈❡r②♦♥❡ t❛❦❡s ♥♦t✐❝❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉✱ ❜✉t ♥♦t ✐♥ t❤❡ ✇❛② ②♦✉ ✇♦✉❧❞ ❧✐❦❡✳ ❨♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ ❛♥② ❡♠♦t✐♦♥❛❧ r❡❧❛t✐♦♥s❤✐♣s✱ s❝❛r❡❞ ♦❢ ❤✉rt✐♥❣ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ♠❛ss✐✈❡ ❜♦❞②✳ ■♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ ❡♥❥♦②✐♥❣ ✐t✱ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ✐s t❤❡ ✇❛②✳ ❋♦♦❞ ✐s t❤❡ ♦♥❧② r❡❢✉❣❡✳ ■t ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❢❡❡❧ ❣♦♦❞✳ ◆♦ ♦♥❡ ❝❛♥ t❡❧❧ ②♦✉ ✇❤❛t ❛♥❞ ❤♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❡❛t✳ ❋✐♥❛❧❧② ❤♦♠❡✳ ❚✐♠❡ t♦ ❡❛t✱ t✐♠❡ t♦ ❢❡❡❧ ❣♦♦❞✳ ❊❛t✳ ❋❡❡❧ ●♦♦❞✳ ❋♦r❣❡t t❤❛t ♥♦❜♦❞② ✇✐❧❧ ❡✈❡r ❧♦✈❡ ♦r ❝❛r❡ ❛❜♦✉t ②♦✉✳ ❊❛t✳ ❋❡❡❧ ❣♦♦❞✳ ❊❛t✳ ❈r② ❛❜♦✉t ❤♦✇ ♣❛t❤❡t✐❝ ②♦✉ ❛r❡✳ ❊❛t✳ ▼❛st✉r❜❛t❡✳ ❊❛t✳ ❚❤❡ ✜rst st❡♣ t♦✇❛r❞s ❜❡❝♦♠✐♥❣ ❛ ✇❡❧❧✲❝✉❧t✉r❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s✿ ❉♦♥✬t ❧✐❡ t♦ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✳ ■ ❤♦♣❡ t❤❛t ❜② t❤❡ ❡♥❞ ♦❢ t❤✐s ♣❛❣❡✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ t❤❛t t❤❡ ♦♥❧② ♣❡rs♦♥ t❤❛t ❝❛♥ ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ②♦✉ ✐s ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✳ ■t✬s ♥♦t ②♦✉r ♣❛r❡♥ts✱ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ②♦✉r ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧ tr❛✐♥❡r✱ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ♣❡❡rs✱ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ②♦✉r ♣❡t✱ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ▼❝❉♦♥❛❧❞s✱ ✐t✬s ♥♦t t❤❡ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✱ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ②♦✉r ❝❛r✳ ❖♥❧② ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✳ ■t✬s ❤❛r❞ t♦ ❝♦♠❡ t♦ ❣r✐♣s ✇✐t❤ t❤❛t✳ ■ ❦♥♦✇✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ■ ✇❡♥t t❤r♦✉❣❤ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❞❡❧✉s✐♦♥s✳ ■ ❧✐❡❞ t♦ ♠②s❡❧❢✳ ■ ❜❧❛♠❡❞ ♠② ✇❡✐❣❤t ♣r♦❜❧❡♠s ♦♥ ♠② ♠♦t❤❡r✬s ❝♦♦❦✐♥❣✳ ▲❛t❡r ■ r❡❛❧✐③❡❞ t❤❛t ✐t✬s ♠❡ ✇❤♦ t♦♦❦ s❡❝♦♥❞s✱ ✐t✬s ♠❡ ✇❤♦ ❧✐❢t❡❞ t❤❡ s♣♦♦♥ t♦ ♠② ♠♦✉t❤✱ ✐t✬s ♠❡ ✇❤♦ ❝❤❡✇❡❞✱ ❛♥❞ ✐t✬s ♠❡ ✇❤♦ s✇❛❧❧♦✇❡❞✳ ▼② ♠♦t❤❡r ❞✐❞♥✬t ❞♦ t❤❡s❡ t❤✐♥❣s✳ ■ ❞✐❞✳ ❚❤✐s ❣✉✐❞❡ ✇♦♥✬t ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ②♦✉✳ ❚❤❡r❡✬s ♦♥❧② s♦ ♠✉❝❤ ❛❞✈✐❝❡ t♦ ❜❡ ❞✐s♣❡♥s❡❞ ❢r♦♠ ❛ ✇✐❦✐ tr♦❧❧❡❞ ❜② ❛ ❝♦✉♣❧❡ ♦❢ ✴❜✴t❛r❞s✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥ t❛❦❡ t❤✐s ❛❞✈✐❝❡ t♦ ❤❡❛rt ❛♥❞ st✐❧❧ ♥♦t ❝❤❛♥❣❡✳ ■t✬s ✉♣ t♦ ②♦✉ t♦ ❞♦✳ ✺✳✶ ❉✐❡t✐♥❣ ❨♦✉r ❜♦❞② ✐s ❛ ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡✳ ❨♦✉ t❛❦❡ ✐♥ ❢♦♦❞ ❛♥❞ ❞r✐♥❦ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ❜r❡❛❦s ✐t ❞♦✇♥ ✐♥t♦ ❡♥❡r❣② t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❢✉♥❝t✐♦♥✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ♠♦r❡ ✐♥t❡r❡st❡❞✱ ❲✐❦✐♣❡❞✐❛ ❤❛s ❛ ❞❡t❛✐❧❡❞ ❞✐s❝✉ss✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤✐s ♣r♦❝❡ss✳ ❊♥❡r❣② ❝♦♥t❡♥ts ♦❢ ❢♦♦❞st✉✛s ✐s ♠❡❛s✉r❡❞ ✐♥ ❦✐❧♦❥♦✉❧❡s✳ ❊✈❡r② ♣❡rs♦♥ r❡q✉✐r❡s ❛ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❛♠♦✉♥t✳ ■t ❞❡♣❡♥❞s ✭r♦✉❣❤❧②✮ ♦♥ ❣❡♥❡t✐❝s✱ ❣❡♥❞❡r✱ ❜✉✐❧❞✱ ❤❡✐❣❤t✱ ❛❣❡✱ ❛♥❞ r❛t❡ ♦❢ ♠❡t❛❜♦❧✐s♠✳ ❨♦✉ ❛r❡ ❢❛t ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ②♦✉r ✐♥t❛❦❡ ✐s ❤✐❣❤❡r t❤❛♥ ②♦✉r ❜✉r♥r❛t❡✳ ❙♦ ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧②✱ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❝✉t ❞♦✇♥ ♠♦r❡ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ✐♥t❛❦❡✳ ❚❤❛t ✉s✉❛❧❧② ♠❡❛♥s ❡❛t✐♥❣ ❤❡❛❧t❤✐❡r ❢♦♦❞s✳✳✳ t♦ ♠♦st ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❚❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧❧②✱ ✇❤❡t❤❡r ❛ ❢♦♦❞ ✐s ✧❤❡❛❧t❤②✧ ♦r ♥♦t✱ ✐t ❝♦♥t❛✐♥s ❛ ❝❡rt❛✐♥ ❡♥❡r❣② ❝♦♥t❡♥t t❤❛t ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ✇✐❧❧ t❛❦❡ ❛♥❞ st♦r❡ ❛s ❢❛t✳ ❨♦✉ ♠✉st s✐♠♣❧② ✐♥♣✉t ❧❡ss ❡♥❡r❣② ✭✐❢ ②♦✉ ♦♥❧② ♠❛t❝❤ ②♦✉r ♥❡❡❞s✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ r❡♠❛✐♥ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ✇❡✐❣❤t✱ ♥♦t ❧♦s❡ ❛♥②✳✮ ❖♥❡ ♠✐❣❤t s❛② ②♦✉✬r❡ ❥✉st ❛ ❜✐❣✲❛ss❡❞ r✉❜❜❡r ❜❛❣✳ ❨♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❡❛t ❤❡❛❧t❤② ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❧♦s❡ t❤❡ ♣♦✉♥❞s✳ ■ ❞♦♥✬t ❡①♣❡❝t t❤❡ ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ✴❜✴t❛r❞ t♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡❧② ❝❤❛♥❣❡ t❤❡ ✇❛② t❤❡② ❡❛t✳ ❨♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❣♦ ●r❛♥♦❧❛✲❋❛❣ t♦ ❣❡t ❤❡❛❧t❤②✱ ✐t✬s ❥✉st ❛❜♦✉t ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❝❤♦✐❝❡s✳ ❚❤✐s ♠❡❛♥s ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛ r❡❛❧ ❞✐♥♥❡r ❛t ♥✐❣❤t ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❣❡t ❢❛st ❢♦♦❞✳ ■t ♠❡❛♥s ❝♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❛ ✇❡❧❧ ❜❛❧❛♥❝❡❞ ♠❡❛❧ ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦t❡✐♥✱ ✈❡❣❣✐❡s✱ ❛ ♣♦rt✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❝❛r❜s✱ ❛♥❞ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❞r✐♥❦ ❚❍❆❚✬❙ ◆❖❚ ❙❖❉❆✳ ■t✬s ❛❜♦✉t ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❝❤♦✐❝❡s ❢♦r ✇❤❛t ②♦✉r ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❡❛t✳ ■t ♠❡❛♥s ♥♦t ❣♦✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❣r❡❛s② ♠✉s❤r♦♦♠ s✇✐s❤ ✇✐t❤ ♦♥✐♦♥ r✐♥❣s✴❋r✐❡s ❛♥❞ ❛ ❈♦❦❡ ❢♦r ❧✉♥❝❤✱ ❛♥❞ ✐♥st❡❛❞ ❣♦✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❤❛t ❈❤✐❝❦❡♥ ❈❛❡s❛r ✇r❛♣✳ ■t ♠❡❛♥s ❡❛t✐♥❣ ❛ s♠❛❧❧ ❤❡❛❧t❤② ❜r❡❛❦❢❛st ✇✐t❤ s♦♠❡ ❢r✉✐t ❛♥❞ ❛ ♠✉✣♥ ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ ❣♦✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❊❣❣ ▼❝▼✉✣♥ ❛♥❞ ❤❛s❤ ❜r♦✇♥s✳ ❆❧s♦✱ ❞♦♥✬t tr② t♦♦ ❤❛r❞ t♦ ❜❡❣✐♥ ✇✐t❤✳ ❙t❛rt✐♥❣ ❛ ❝r❛③② ❞✐❡t✱ ❛♥❞ q✉✐tt✐♥❣ ❛❢t❡r ❛ ✇❡❡❦ ❛❝❤✐❡✈❡s ♥♦t❤✐♥❣✳ ❚❤❡r❡✬s ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❛ r❡❛❧❧② s✐♠♣❧❡ ❞✐❡t t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❞♦✳ ▲❡t ♠❡ ❡①♣❧❛✐♥ ✐t✳ ❘✐❣❤t ♥♦✇✱ ②♦✉r ✇❡✐❣❤t ✐s ♣r❡tt② st❛❜❧❡✳ ■❢ t❤✐s ✐s t❤❡ ❝❛s❡✱ ②♦✉r ❝❛❧♦r✐❝ ✐♥t❛❦❡ ❛♥❞ ❜✉r♥r❛t❡ ♠✉st ❜❡ ♣r❡tt② ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❜❧❡✳ ◆♦✇✱ ❧❡t✬s s❛② ②♦✉ st❛rt ❡❛t✐♥❣ ❛ t❡♥t❤ ❧❡ss ❢♦♦❞✳ ◆♦✇✱ ②♦✉r ❝❛❧♦r✐❝ ✐♥t❛❦❡ ✐s ✾✴✶✵ ♦❢ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❝❛❧♦r✐❝ ❜✉r♥r❛t❡✳ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ ❧♦s❡ s♦♠❡ ✇❡✐❣❤t✳ ◆♦✇✱ ②♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❧♦s❡ ❛❧❧ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❢❛t✱ ❜✉t ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❧♦s❡ s♦♠❡✳ ❖♥❡ st❡♣ ❛t ❛ t✐♠❡✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❛ r❡❛❧❧② ❡❛s② ❞✐❡t t♦♦✳ ❊❛t t❤❡ ❡①❛❝t s❛♠❡ ❢♦♦❞s ❛s ♥♦r♠❛❧✱ ❥✉st ❡❛t ❧❡ss ♦❢ t❤❡♠✳ ▲❡❛✈❡ ❛ ❢❡✇ ❢r✐❡s ❜❡❤✐♥❞✱ ❣❡t t❤❡ ❲❤♦♣♣❡r ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❉♦✉❜❧❡ ❲❤♦♣♣❡r✱ ❡t❝✳ ◆♦✇✱ t❤✐s ✐s♥✬t t❤❡ ✐❞❡❛❧ ❣♦❛❧ ❞✐❡t✱ ❜✉t ✐t✬s ❛ ♥✐❝❡ st❡♣♣✐♥❣ st♦♥❡ ✐♥t♦ t❤❡ ❞✐❡t✐♥❣ ✇♦r❧❞✳ ■t ✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t t♦ r❡♠❡♠❜❡r ✇❤❡♥ ❞✐❡t✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❝✉tt✐♥❣ ❜❛❝❦ ♦♥ ❢♦♦❞s ❞♦❡s ♥♦t ♠❡❛♥ s❦✐♣♣✐♥❣ ♠❡❛❧s✱ ♥♦t ❡❛t✐♥❣ r❡❣✉❧❛r❧② ✇✐❧❧ ❞♦ ❞❛♠❛❣❡ t♦ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞②✬s ♠❡t❛❜♦❧✐❝ r❛t❡ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ✜♥❞ t❤❛t ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ❤♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ❡✛♦rt ②♦✉ ♣✉t ✐♥t♦ ❡①❡r❝✐s✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♥♦t ❜❡ ❧♦s✐♥❣ ✇❡✐❣❤t ❛s ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ❤❛st✐❧② st♦r❡s t❤❡ ❡♥❡r❣② t❛❦❡♥ ✐♥ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❡❛t✐♥❣ ✐♥ ❢❛t✱ ✸✵ ✉♥s✉r❡ ♦❢ ✇❤❡♥ ✐t ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡①t ❣❡t ❛ s✉♣♣❧②✳ ▼♦st ❞✐❡t✐t✐❛♥s r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞ ❡❛t✐♥❣ ✺ ♠❡❛❧s ❛ ❞❛②✱ t❤❡ st❛♥❞❛r❞ ✸ ❛♥❞ ✷ s♥❛❝❦s ✐♥ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥✱ ❡❛❝❤ ♦❢ ✇❤✐❝❤ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❝♦♥s✉♠❡❞ ❛♣♣r♦①✐♠❛t❡❧② ✸ ❤♦✉rs ❛♣❛rt✳ ❇② ❡❛t✐♥❣ ♠♦r❡ r❡❣✉❧❛r❧② ②♦✉ ❛✈♦✐❞ ♦✈❡r❡❛t✐♥❣ ❞✉❡ t♦ ❡①❝❡ss✐✈❡ ❤✉♥❣❡r✱ ❦❡❡♣ ②♦✉r ♠❡t❛❜♦❧✐s♠ ✇♦r❦✐♥❣ ♠♦r❡ ❡✣❝✐❡♥t❧②✱ ❛♥❞ ❛❧❧♦✇ t❤❡ ❜♦❞② t♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss ❡♥❡r❣② ❜❡tt❡r✳ ✺✳✷ ❲❤❛t ❚♦ ❊❛t✳✳ ❆♥❞ ❲❤❛t ◆♦t ❚♦ ❊❛t ❚❤❡ ❡❛s✐❡st ✇❛② t♦ ❧❡❛r♥ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❡❛t ✐s t♦ ❧❡❛r♥ ✇❤❛t ♥♦t t♦ ❡❛t✳ ❚❤❡ ✇❤♦❧❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞ ✭❙❡❡✿ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛✮ ✐s t❤❛t ✇❡ ❤❛✈❡ ❣♦tt❡♥ ✉s❡❞ t♦ ❡❛t✐♥❣ ❝❡rt❛✐♥ ❢♦♦❞s✱ ❝♦♥❢✉s❡❞ ❛s t♦ ✇❤❛t ✐s ✧❤❡❛❧t❤②✧ ❛♥❞ ✇❤❛t ✐s ♥♦t✳ ❨♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ♣❡rs♦♥ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t❡s ❢♦♦❞s s✉❝❤ ❛s ✇❤✐t❡ ❜r❡❛❞ ✇✐t❤ ❤❡❛❧t❤✐♥❡ss✲ ❡✈❡♥ t❤♦✉❣❤ ❲❤✐t❡ ❇r❡❛❞ ✐s t❤❡ ✇♦rst ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❜r❡❛❞ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❡❛t✳ ❙♦✱ ✇❤❛t ✐s ❜❛❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉❄ ❙t❛② ❆✇❛② ❋r♦♠✳✳✳ • ❙♦❞❛s ❛♥❞ ✧❙♦❢t ❉r✐♥❦s✧ ❙♦❞❛s ❛♥❞ s♦❢t ❞r✐♥❦s ❛r❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② t❤❡ ❢❛st❡st ✇❛② t♦ ❢❛tt❡♥ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✉♣✳ ❋✉❧❧ ♦❢ s✉❣❛r ❛♥❞ ❝❛r❜s✱ ❡✈❡♥ ❞✐❡t s♦❞❛s ❝❛♥ ♠❡ss ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞②✳ ❋♦r ②♦✉ s♦✉t❤❡r♥❡rs✱ s✇❡❡t ✐❝❡❞ t❡❛ ✐s ♣r❡tt② ❜❛❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉❀ ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ❞♦❡s t❤❡ s✉❣❛r ✐♥ ✐t ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❢❛t✱ t❤❡ t❛♥♥✐♥s ✐♥ t❤❡ t❡❛ ✐❢ ❝♦♥s✉♠❡❞ r❡❣✉❧❛r❧② ❝❛♥ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ❦✐❞♥❡② st♦♥❡s✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡ ❢❡❡❧✐♥❣ ♦❢ ❤❛✈✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❦✐❞♥❡②s ♣✉❧❧❡❞ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ②♦✉r ♣❡❡❤♦❧❡✱ ❝✉t ❜❛❝❦ ♦♥ ✐t✳ ■♥st❡❛❞✱ ❣♦ ❢♦r s✉❣❛r ❢r❡❡ ✢❛✈♦r❡❞ ✇❛t❡r ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✲ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❛✈♦✐❞ ❤❡❛✈② s✉❣❛r ✐♥t❛❦❡✳ ▼✐❧❦ ✐s ❣r❡❛t t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ❛r♦✉♥❞✱ ❛s ✐t✬s ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ✐♥❝r❡❞✐❜❧② ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉✱ ❜✉t ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ ❛ ✈❛r✐❡t② ♦❢ ♦t❤❡r t❤✐♥❣s✳ • ❈❛♥❞② ❛♥❞ ❉❡ss❡rts ❙✉❣❛r ✇❛s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r❡❞ ❜② t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞ ❞✉r✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❈♦❧♦♥✐③❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛✳ ❆♥❞✱ ♥♦ s✉r♣r✐s❡✱ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❜❡❣❛♥ t♦ ❣❡t ❢❛t ❛t t❤❛t ✈❡r② ♣♦✐♥t✳ ❈❛♥❞② ❛♥❞ ❉❡s❡rts ❛r❡ ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡ ♥♦✲♥♦s✳ ❙♦♠❡ ❛r❡ ♦❦❛② ✭❚❤❡ ♦❝❝❛s✐♦♥❛❧ ❝♦♦❦✐❡ ♦r ❝❛♥❞② ❜❛r✮✱ ❜✉t ❡❛t✐♥❣ t❤❡♠ ♦♥ ❛♥② ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ r❡❣✉❧❛r ❜❛s✐s ✐s ❞❡tr✐♠❡♥t❛❧✳ ■t ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❢❛t ❛♥❞ r✉✐♥ ②♦✉r t❡❡t❤ ✐♥ ✇❛②s ②♦✉ ♦♥❧② t❤♦✉❣❤t ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ ♦♥ t❡❧❡✈✐s✐♦♥✳ • ❘❡✜♥❡❞ ❋❧♦✉rs ❘❡✜♥❡❞ ❋❧♦✉rs ❛r❡ ✢♦✉rs t❤❛t ❤❛✈❡ ❜❡❡♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss❡❞ ❛♥❞ ❜❧❡❛❝❤❡❞✱ r❡♠♦✈✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ✧❣♦♦❞✧ ❝❛r❜s ❛♥❞ ✐♥❥❡❝t✐♥❣ ✐t ✇✐t❤ ❜❛❞✳ ❚❤❛t ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡s ✧✇❤✐t❡ ✢♦✉r✧✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ s❛♥❞✇✐❝❤ ❜r❡❛❞✱ ♠♦st ❜❛❦✐♥❣ ♣r♦❞✉❝ts ✭♣✐❡ ❝r✉sts✱ ❡t❝✮✱ ❛♥❞ ❝r❛❝❦❡rs✳ ❙t❛② ❛✇❛②✳ P✐❧❧s❜✉r② ❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ♠❛❦❡ ♣r❡tt② ❞❛♠♥ ❣♦♦❞ r❡❛❧ ✇❤❡❛t ❜r❡❛❞s✳ ❯s❡ t❤♦s❡ ✐♥st❡❛❞✳ ❆♥♦t❤❡r ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❡ ❛r❡ ♠✉❧t✐✲❣r❛✐♥ ❜r❡❛❞s ❛♥❞ r②❡ ❜r❡❛❞s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ ❏❡✇✐s❤ r②❡✳ ❚❤❡ ❜❡st ♣❛rt ♦❢ ❛ ❤❛♠ s❛♥❞✇✐❝❤ ♦♥ ❏❡✇✐s❤ r②❡ ✐s t❤❡ ✐r♦♥②✱ tr✉st ♠❡✳ ❚❤❡ ❡①tr❛ ✜❜❡r ❢r♦♠ t❤❡s❡ ❜r❡❛❞s ✇✐❧❧ ❛❧s♦ ❦❡❡♣ ②♦✉r ❜♦✇❡❧s ✐♥ ❣♦♦❞ s❤❛♣❡✳ • ✧❍❡❛✈②✧ ▼❡❛ts ❛♥❞ ❈❤❡❡s❡s ❊❛t✐♥❣ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ❝❤❡❡s❡ ♦r ♠❡❛t ♦r ♦t❤❡r ♣r♦❞✉❝ts ❛❧♦♥❣ t❤♦s❡ ❧✐♥❡s ✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛t✐❝✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✇❤❡♥ ❢r✐❡❞ ♦r ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡ ❝♦❛t❡❞ ✐♥ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❢❛tt❡♥✐♥❣✳ ❊❛t✐♥❣ ♠❡❛t ❛♥❞ ❝❤❡❡s❡ ✐s ❤❡❛❧t❤②✱ ❥✉st ♥♦t ✐♥ ❡①❝❡ss✳ ❘❡♠❡♠❜❡r t♦ ❦❡❡♣ tr❛❝❦ ♦❢ ❤♦✇ ♠❛♥② ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ✧❢❛ts✧ ❛r❡ ✐♥ ❛ ♠❡❛t ♦r ❝❤❡❡s❡ ✭❙❛t✉r❛t❡❞✱ ❡t❝✳✮✳ ●❡♥❡r❛❧❧② t❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❡❞ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ✐s✱ t❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ❝r❛♣ ✐s ✐♥ ✐t✳ • ❙♦♠❡ ✧▼❡❛❧ ❇❛rs✧ ❛♥❞ ❉✐❡t ❉r✐♥❦s ❚❤❡s❡ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❝♦♥t❛✐♥ ❛♥ ❛ss❧♦❛❞ ♦❢ s✉❣❛r✳ ❙t❛② ❛✇❛②✳ ❆♥❞ ❊❛t ❆ ❋✉❝❦t♦♥ ❖❢✳✳✳ • ▲❡❛♥ ▼❡❛t ▲❡❛♥ ♠❡❛t ✐s ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❤❛s ❜❡❡♥ s❧✐♠♠❡❞ ❞♦✇♥✱ t❤❡ ❢❛t r❡♠♦✈❡❞✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❡✈❡♥ ❞♦ t❤✐s ❜② ❤❛♥❞ ❜② t❛❦✐♥❣ ❛ s❤❛r♣ ❦♥✐❢❡ ❛♥❞ ❥✉st s❧✐❝✐♥❣ ♦✛ t❤❡ ❡①tr❛ ❢❛t✳ ▲❡❛♥ ♠❡❛t ✐s ✜❧❧✐♥❣✱ ❢✉❧❧ ♦❢ ♣r♦t❡✐♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❞♦❡s♥✬t ♣✉t ♦♥ ♠✉❝❤ ✇❡✐❣❤t ❛t ❛❧❧✳ • ❲❤✐t❡ ▼❡❛ts ❆ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ ❘✉❧❡ ♦❢ ❚❤✉♠❜ ❛❜♦✉t ♠❡❛ts✱ ✐s t❤❛t t❤❡ s♠❛❧❧❡r t❤❡ ❛♥✐♠❛❧ ✐t ❝♦♠❡s ❢r♦♠✱ t❤❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✐❡r ✐t ✐s ❢♦r ②♦✉✳ ✭s♦♠❡ ❡①❝❡♣t✐♦♥s ❛r❡ ♠❛❞❡✱ ❜✉t ✐♥ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ t❤❡ r✉❧❡ ❤♦❧❞s✮✳ ❙♦ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡r s❝❤❡♠❡ ♦❢ t❤✐♥❣s✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♥♦t✐❝❡ t❤❛t ♠❡❛ts r❛♥❣❡ ❢r♦♠ ✉♥❤❡❛❧t❤② t♦ ❤❡❛❧t❤② ✐♥ t❤✐s ♦r❞❡r✿ ❇❡❡❢✱ ♣♦r❦✱ ❧❛♠❜✱ ❝❤✐❝❦❡♥✱ ✜s❤✱ ❛♥❞ s❤❡❧❧✜s❤✳ ✸✶ ❲❤❛t ❞♦ ②♦✉ s❡❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❧❛tt❡r ♣❛rts ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧✐st❄ ❚❤❡②✬r❡ ❛❧❧ ✇❤✐t❡ ♠❡❛t✳ ❋✐s❤ ❝♦♥t❛✐♥ ❛ ❢✉❝❦t♦♥ ♦❢ ♣r♦t❡✐♥s ❛s ✇❡❧❧✱ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s ♦♠❡❣❛✲✸✲❢❛tt② ❛❝✐❞s✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♣r❡✈❡♥ts ♠❡♠♦r② ♣r♦❜❧❡♠s ❧❛t❡r ✐♥ ❧✐❢❡✱ ♣❧✉s ✜s❤ ✐s ❞❡❧✐❝✐♦✉s✱ ❛♥❞ ♥♦t ❢❛tt❡♥✐♥❣ ❛t ❛❧❧✳ ❙❤❡❧❧✜s❤ ❝♦♥t❛✐♥ ❛ ❢✉❝❦t♦♥ ♦❢ ③✐♥❝✱ ✭♠♦st❧② ♦②st❡rs ❛❝t✉❛❧❧②✮ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ♥❡❝❡ss❛r② ❢♦r ♠❡♥ t♦ ♠❛✐♥t❛✐♥ ❛ ❤❡❛❧t❤② s❡① ❞r✐✈❡✳ ❊❛t s♦♠❡ ♦②st❡r✱ ❢❛♣✱ r❡♣❡❛t✳ • ❲❤❡❛t ❇r❡❛❞ ❲❤❡❛t ❜r❡❛❞ ✐s ❱❊❘❨ ✜❧❧✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ✐t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❡✈❡♥ t♦✉❝❤ ②♦✉ s♦ ❢❛r ❛s ❢❛t ❣♦❡s✱ ❛s ✐t ❤❛s ❝♦♠♣❧❡① ❝❛r❜s✳ ▼✉♥❝❤ ❛✇❛②✳ • ❉r✐❡❞ ❋r✉✐t ■t✬s ❛ ❧♦t ❜❡tt❡r t❤❛♥ ✐t s♦✉♥❞s ❛♥❞ ✐t✬s ✈❡r② ❤❡❛❧t❤②✳ ❙t✐❝❦ ✇✐t❤ t❤✐♥❣s ❧✐❦❡ ❞❛t❡s ❛♥❞ ❛♣r✐❝♦ts✱ ❛♥❞ ♦♥❧② ♦❝❝❛s✐♦♥❛❧❧② ❞✐♣ ✐♥t♦ t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ s✉❣❛r ❛r❡❛ ♦❢ ❞r✐❡❞ ♣✐♥❡❛♣♣❧❡ ❛♥❞ ♠❛♥❣♦ s❧✐❝❡s✱ ♦r t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ ❢❛t ❛r❡❛ ♦❢ ❞r✐❡❞ ❜❛♥❛♥❛ s❧✐❝❡s✳ ❏✉❞❣❡ ❛❝❝♦r❞✐♥❣❧②✳ • ❱❡❣❡t❛❜❧❡s ❨❡❛❤✱ t❤❡②✬r❡ ❤❛r❞ t♦ ❡❛t ❢♦r ✉s t♦♦✳ ●❡♥❡r❛❧❧② t❤❡② ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ♠❛❞❡ ♣❛❧❛t❛❜❧❡ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❜♦✐❧✐♥❣✱ ❤❡❛❧t❤② t♦♣♣✐♥❣s✱ ♦r ❛ ✈❛r✐❡t② ♦❢ s❛✉❝❡s ✭❛❣❛✐♥ ❛✐♠ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤② s✐❞❡✮✳ ●♦♦❞ ❝❤❡❛♣ ✈❡❣❣✐❡s ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡ ❝❛rr♦ts ✭❜✐❣ ❛♥❞ ✜♥❣❡r s✐③❡✮✱ ❜r♦❝❝♦❧✐✱ ❛s♣❛r❛❣✉s ✭♦r ❜❡tt❡r ②❡t ❢✉❝❦ ❜♦t❤ ♦❢ t❤♦s❡ ❛♥❞ ❣♦ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❍②❜r✐❞ ❇r♦❝♦❧❧✐✲❆s♣❛r❛❣✉s✮✱ ♣❡❛s✱ ❝❛✉❧✐✢♦✇❡r✱ ❛♥❞ t❤♦s❡ ♣r❡♣❛❝❦❛❣❡❞ ❜❛❣s ♦❢ s❛❧❛❞ ❛t t❤❡ ❣r♦❝❡r② st♦r❡✳ • ◆✉ts ❛♥❞ ❇❡rr✐❡s ✭❆♥❞ ◆❖ ❈r❡❛♠✮ ✭■♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ ●r❛♥♦❧❛ ♠✐①❡s✮ ❙♦ ❧♦♥❣ ❛s t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦ ❛❞❞❡❞ s✉❣❛r✱ ♥✉ts✱ ❜❡rr✐❡s✱ ❛♥❞ ❣r❛♥♦❧❛ ♠✐①❡s ❛r❡ ✐♥❝r❡❞✐❜❧② ✜❧❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❧❡❛♥✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s t❤❡ ♣❡r❢❡❝t s♥❛❝❦✐♥❣ ❢♦♦❞✳ • ❙✉❣❛r ❋r❡❡ ❉r✐♥❦s ✶✵ ✳ ❆❧s♦✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❤❛r❞ ❡♥♦✉❣❤✱ ❋r♦♠ s✉❣❛r ❢r❡❡ ❧❡♠♦♥❛❞❡ t♦ s✉❣❛r ❢r❡❡ ❚❛♥❣✱ ✐t✬s ❛♥ ❛❧❧✲②♦✉✲❝❛♥✲❞r✐♥❦ ❜✉✛❡t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ✜♥❞ s♦♠❡ ♣r❡tt② ❣♦♦❞ st♦r❡ ♠❛❞❡ st✉✛ s✉❝❤ ❛s ❆r✐③♦♥❛ ❉✐❡t ●r❡❡♥ ❚❡❛ ✇✐t❤ ❍♦♥❡② ❛♥❞ ●✐♥s❡♥❣✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✇✐❧❧✐♥❣ t♦ s♣❡♥❞ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ♠♦♥❡②✱ ✧◆❛t✉r❛❧ ❞r✐♥❦s✧ ❛t ✧❤❡❛❧t❤✧ st♦r❡s ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❛ ❣r❡❛t ✇❛② t♦ ❣❡t ②♦✉r ❞r✐♥❦ ♦♥ s♦ ❧♦♥❣ ❛s ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❢♦♦❧ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✐♥t♦ ❜✉②✐♥❣ ♦✈❡r✲♣r✐❝❡❞ ❣♦♦❞s✳ ❚❤❛t s❛✐❞✱ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❝❤❡❝❦ t❤❡ ♥✉tr✐t✐♦♥ ❧❛❜❡❧ ❜❡❢♦r❡❤❛♥❞✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ❡✈❡♥ t❤♦s❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤② ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ t❡❛ ❞r✐♥❦s ❝❛♥ ❤✐❞❡ ❛ s❤✐t❧♦❛❞ ♦❢ ❝❛❧♦r✐❡s✳ • ❊❣❣s ❛♥❞ ▼✐❧❦ ❚❤✐s ✐s r❡❛❧❧② ❣♦♦❞✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✐♥t♦ ❜♦❞②❜✉✐❧❞✐♥❣✳ ◆❡✈❡r ❡❛t t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ❜✉t ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ ❡❛❝❤ ❞❛② ✐s t❤❡ ♣❡r❢❡❝t ❡♥❡r❣② ❜♦♦st t❤❛t ♥❡✈❡r t♦✉❝❤❡s ②♦✉r ✇❛✐st❧✐♥❡✳ • ●r❡❡♥ ❚❡❛ ●r❡❡♥ t❡❛ ✐s r❡❛❧❧② ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉✳ ◆♦t ♦♥❧② ❞♦❡s ✐t ❤❛✈❡ ♠❛♥② ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❜❡♥❡✜ts s✉❝❤ ❛s ❛♥t✐✲❝❛♥❝❡r✱ ❛♥t✐✲❛❣✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ❛♥t✐✲❆❧③❤❡✐♠❡r✬s ♣r♦♣❡rt✐❡s✱ ✐t ✐s ❛❧s♦ ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉r s❦✐♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❦❡❡♣s ②♦✉r ♠❡t❛❜♦❧✐s♠ r✉♥♥✐♥❣ ❛t ❛♥ ❛❧❧ t✐♠❡ ❤✐❣❤✱ ❡♥❛❜❧✐♥❣ ♠♦r❡ ❢❛t ❜✉r♥✳ Pr♦♦❢✿ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ s✉❜st❛♥t✐❛❧❧② ❢❡✇❡r ❢❛t ❢✉❝❦s ✐♥ ❆s✐❛ t❤❛♥ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ✐♥ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡② ❡❛t ❜❛❜✐❡s ❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r s❤✐t ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥s ✇♦✉❧❞ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❢❛tt❡♥✐♥❣✳ • ❋♦r ❚❤❡ ❖❢✲❆❣❡ ✴❇✴t❛r❞s✿ ❘❡❞ ❲✐♥❡ ❲✐♥❡ ❤❛s ❛ ✈❡r② r✐❝❤ ❤✐st♦r② ❛♥❞ ♣❡r❤❛♣s ❡✈❡♥ r✐❝❤❡r ✈❛r✐❡t②✱ ✐ts ❤❛r❞ t♦ ✜♥❞ t✇♦ ✇✐♥❡s t❤❛t t❛st❡ ❡①❛❝t❧② t❤❡ s❛♠❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❡✈❡♥ ✐♥ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❧❛❜❡❧✱ ❡❛❝❤ ②❡❛r✬s ✇✐♥❡ ✇✐❧❧ t❛st❡ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❢r♦♠ ❛♥♦t❤❡r ②❡❛r✬s✳ ❙✐♠♣❧② ♣✉t ✲ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥♥♦t ❜❡ ❛ ❝✉❧t✉r❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❦♥♦✇✐♥❣ ❛t ❧❡❛st ❛ t❤✐♥❣ ♦r t✇♦ ❛❜♦✉t ✇✐♥❡✳ ❘❡❛❞ ♠♦r❡ ❜♦♦❦s ❛❜♦✉t ✐t t♦ ❧❡❛r♥ ♠♦r❡✳ ❘❡❞ ✇✐♥❡ ✐♥ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r ✐s ✜❧❧❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❛♥t✐✲♦①✐❞❛♥ts ❛♥❞ t❛♥♥✐♥s✳ ❇♦t❤ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ❛r❡ r❡❛❧❧② ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉r ❤❡❛rt✳ ❏✉st ❧♦♦❦ ❛t ❋r❡♥❝❤ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ■ ❦♥♦✇✱ ■ ❦♥♦✇✱ t❤❡②✬r❡ ❛ ❜✉♥❝❤ ♦❢ ✇❛r ❧♦s✐♥❣ ♣✉ss✐❡s ❜✉t t❤✐♥❦ ❛❜♦✉t ✐t✱ t❤❡ ❋r❡♥❝❤ ❛r❡ ❦♥♦✇♥ ❢♦r ❜❡✐♥❣ ❤❡❛✈② s♠♦❦❡rs✱ ❛♥❞ ❡❛t ♠♦r❡ ♠❡❛t ❛♥❞ ❝❤❡❡s❡s t❤❛♥ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥s ❞♦✱ ❛♥❞ ②❡t✱ t❤❡✐r ❛♥♥✉❛❧ r❛t❡ ❢♦r ❤❡❛rt ❞✐s❡❛s❡ ✐s ♣❛r❛❞♦①✐❝❛❧❧② ❧♦✇✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ♥♦t ❛ ❝♦✐♥❝✐❞❡♥❝❡ ❛s ❋r❡♥❝❤ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥s✉♠❡ ❛♥ ✉♥❣♦❞❧② ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ✇✐♥❡ ♣❡r ②❡❛r✳ ✶✵ ❑✉st ♠❛❦❡ s✉r❡ ②♦✉ ❛✈♦✐❞ s♦♠❡ ✧❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ s✉❣❛rs✧✳ ◆♦t ❛❧❧ ♦❢ t❤❡♠ ❛r❡ ❜❛❞ ❢♦r ②♦✉✱ ❜✉t t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❝❡rt❛✐♥ t②♣❡s ✇❤✐❝❤ q✉✐t❡ ♣♦ss✐❜❧② ❝♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❧❡ss t❤❛♥ ❤❡❛❧t❤② ❢♦r ②♦✉✳ ❘❡s❡❛r❝❤ ❛♥❞ r❡❛❞ t❤❡ ✐♥❣r❡❞✐❡♥ts ❧✐st ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ♣❛r❛♥♦✐❞✳ ✸✷ ✺✳✸ ❊❛s② ❙tr❡ss✲❋r❡❡ ❲❛②s ❚♦ ❈✉t ❉♦✇♥ ❖♥ ❚❤❡ P♦✉♥❞s ❖♥❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❤❛r❞❡st t❤✐♥❣s t♦ ❞♦ ✐♥ ❞✐❡t✐♥❣ ✐s t♦ ❝✉t ❢♦♦❞s ②♦✉ ❧♦✈❡✳ ❲❡❧❧✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ s♦♠❡ ❡❛s② s✉❜st✐t✉t❡s ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣✉❧❧ ♦✛ t♦ ❣❡t ❛r♦✉♥❞ t❤♦s❡ ♥❛st② ❧✐tt❧❡ s♣❧✉r❣❡s✱ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s ❝✉r❜ ②♦✉r ❛♣♣❡t✐t❡✳ ❚r② s♦♠❡ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ r❡♣❧❛❝❡♠❡♥ts ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❡✈❡r ❢❡❡❧ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♥❡❡❞✿ • ❙t❛② ❛✇❛② ❢r♦♠ ❢❛st ❢♦♦❞✱ ❛❧❧ ♦❢ ✐t ✐s t❡rr✐❜❧❡ ❢♦r ②♦✉ ❛♥❞ ■ s❤♦✉❧❞♥✬t ❡✈❡♥ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ t❡❧❧ ②♦✉ t❤✐s✳ ❊✈❡♥ ❙✉❜✇❛②✱ ✇❤♦s❡ ❝♦♠♠❡r❝✐❛❧s s♣♦✉t ✐ts ❤❡❛❧t❤✐♥❡ss✱ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❛s ❜❛❞ ❛s ▼❝❉♦♥❛❧❞✬s ✉♥❧❡ss ②♦✉ ❣❡t ②♦✉r s❛♥❞✇✐❝❤ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ♠❛②♦ ❛♥❞ ❝❤❡❡s❡ ✭✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝❛s❡ ✐t ♠❛② ❜❡ ✇♦rt❤✇❤✐❧❡✮✳ • ❆✈♦✐❞ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ s✇❡❡t❡♥❡rs ❛♥❞ ✧❉✐❡t✧ s♦❞❛s ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡ ♣❧❛✉❣❡✳ ❚❤♦✉❣❤ ♠❛♥② ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ t❤❛t t❤❡② ❛r❡ ✧❜❡tt❡r✧ ❢♦r ②♦✉✱ t❤❡② ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② t❛❦❡ ❧♦♥❣❡r t♦ ❜❡ ❜r♦❦❡♥ ❞♦✇♥ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞②✳ ■❢ ②♦✉r ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ s♦❞❛ ♦r s✇❡❡t❡♥ ②♦✉r ✐❝❡❞ t❡❛✱ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ r❡❣✉❧❛r s♦❞❛ ♦r ✉s❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧ s✉❣❛r✳ • ❉r✐♥❦ ❛t ❧❡❛st ✷ q✉❛rts ♦❢ ✇❛t❡r ❛ ❞❛②✱ ♥♦t ✐♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ ❞r✐♥❦s ❛t ♠❡❛❧s✳ ❲❛t❡r ✇❡✐❣❤t ✐s ❛ ❧❛r❣❡ ♣❛rt ♦❢ ❢❛t ❢♦r ♠♦st ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❈♦♥✈✐♥❝❡ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ✇❛t❡r ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ✇❛t❡r ✇❡✐❣❤t ❣♦❡s ❛✇❛②✳ • ❘❡♣❧❛❝❡ ❝❤✐♣s ❛♥❞ ❞✐♣ ✇✐t❤ ❚r✐s❝✉✐ts ❛♥❞ ❍✉♠♠✉s✳ ❍✉♠♠✉s ✐s ❛ ❜❡❛♥✲❧✐❦❡ ❞✐♣ t❤❛t t❛st❡s ❞❛♠♥ ❣♦♦❞ ❛♥❞ ❤❛s ♥♦ ❤✐❣❤ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛t✳ ❨♦✉r ❢r✐❡♥❞s ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ❢✉♥ ♦❢ ②♦✉✱ ❜✉t ✐t✬s ❣♦♦❞ ❛❧❧ t❤❡ s❛♠❡✳ • ❊❛t ❚❤✐♥ ❈r✉st ♣✐③③❛ r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ❤❛♥❞ t♦ss❡❞✳ ❚❤✐♥ ❝r✉st ❤❛s ❛❜♦✉t ✶✵ ❣r❛♠s ♦❢ ❢❛t ❧❡ss ♣❡r s❧✐❝❡✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ✐t ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ♣r❡tt② ❤❡❛❧t❤② ❢♦r ②♦✉✳ • ❉♦♥✬t ❞r✐♥❦ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧✳ ◆♦✱ s❡r✐♦✉s❧②✳ ❆❧❝♦❤♦❧ ✐s ✈❡r② ❢❛tt❡♥✐♥❣✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ❜❡❡r✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❡①♣❧♦✐t ✇♦♠❡♥ ❜❡tt❡r ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬r❡ s♦❜❡r ❛♥②✇❛②✳ ▼♦r❡ s✐♠♣❧②✱ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❜✉r♥❡❞ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ❢❛t ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉r ❜♦❞② ♥❡❡❞s t♦ ❞♦ ❛♥ ❡✛♦rt✱ s♦ t❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❜❧♦♦❞✱ t❤❡ ❧❡ss ❢❛t ✇✐❧❧ ❣♦ ❛✇❛②✳ ❇✉t ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ s♦❜❡r✳ • ❯s❡ ✇❤❡❛t ♣❛st❛ r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ♣❛st❛✳ ■t t❛st❡s t❤❡ s❛♠❡✱ ❛♥❞ ✐t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ❜❛❞ ❝❛r❜s✳ • ❚r② t♦ ❜✉② ♦r❣❛♥✐❝ t❤✐♥❣s✳ ❖r❣❛♥✐❝ s❛✉❝❡s s✉❝❤ ❛s ❙♣❛❣❤❡tt✐ ❙❛✉❝❡ ❤❛✈❡ ❧❡ss s✉❣❛r✱ ❛♥❞ ❛r❡ t❤✉s ❤❡❛❧t❤✐❡r✳ ■t✬s ♥♦t ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡②✬r❡ s✇❡❡t ❛♥②✇❛②✳ • ❚r② t♦ ❛✈♦✐❞ ❣❛♠❡ ❢♦♦❞ s✉❝❤ ❛s ❉✉❝❦ ✭❘❛❜❜✐t✱ ❤♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐s ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡❧② ❢❛t ❢r❡❡ ♠❡❛t✱ ❡❛t ❛✇❛②✮✳ ❚❤❡② ❛r❡ ♠✉❝❤ ❢❛tt✐❡r✳ ❨♦✉ ♦♥❧② r✉♥ ✐♥t♦ t❤❡♠ ✐♥ ❢❛♥❝② r❡st❛✉r❛♥ts✲ ❛♥❞ t❤♦✉❣❤ t❤❡② ❛r❡ ❣♦♦❞✱ t❤❡② ❛r❡ ✐♥❝r❡❞✐❜❧② ❢❛tt②✳ ❨♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❜❡ ❡❛t✐♥❣ ♠✉❝❤ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ❢♦♦❞s ❛♥②✇❛②✱ tr✉st ♠❡✳ • ❙t♦♣ ❡❛t✐♥❣ r❛♠❡♥ ❛♥❞ ❈✉♣ ◆♦♦❞❧❡s✳ ❚❤❡② ❝♦♥t❛✐♥ ❛♥ ✐♥s❛♥❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ❢❛t✳ ❘❛t❤❡r✱ ❣♦ ❢♦r s♣❛❣❤❡tt✐s ♦r ❧❡❛♥❡r st✉✛✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛r❡ ❥✉st ❛s ✜❧❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ✉♣ t♦ ✜✈❡ t✐♠❡s ❧❡ss ❢❛tt❡♥✐♥❣✳ ❆♥❞ ❡❛s❡ ✉♣ ♦♥ t❤❡ ❜✉tt❡r ❛♥❞ ♦❧✐✈❡ ♦✐❧ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❝♦♦❦ t❤❡ ♥♦♦❞❧❡s✳ • ❉♦♥✬t ❡❛t ❝r❛❝❦❡rs ✇✐t❤ s♦✉♣ ♦r s❛❧❛❞s✳ ❊✈❡♥ ❙❛❧t✐♥❡ ❝r❛❝❦❡rs ❝♦♥t❛✐♥ ❢❛t✳ • ❙❦✐♣ t❤❡ ❋r✐❡s ♦r ❖♥✐♦♥ ❘✐♥❣s ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❣❡t ❛ ❢❛tt② ♠❡❛❧✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ✉♥❤❡❛❧t❤②✱ ❞♦♥✬t ❦✐❧❧ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❡♥t✐r❡❧② ✇❤✐❧❡ ❞♦✐♥❣ ✐t✳ • ❊❛t ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉ ❣♦ t♦ t❤❡ ❣r♦❝❡r② st♦r❡✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ ❧❡ss ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❡ t♦ ❜✉② ❢❛tt② ❢♦♦❞s✳ • ❊❛t ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉ t♦ ❣♦ t♦ ♣❛rt✐❡s ♦r ♦♥ ❛ ❞❛t❡✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ ❧❡ss ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❡ t♦ ❝❤♦✇ ❞♦✇♥✱ ❛♥❞ ♠♦r❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❡ t♦ t❛❧❦✳ • ▼❛❦❡ ②♦✉r ♦✇♥ ❧✉♥❝❤ ❢♦r ✇♦r❦✴s❝❤♦♦❧✴♦t❤❡rs✳ ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ❝❛♥ ✐t ❜❡ ❝❤❡❛♣❡r✱ ❜✉t ❛t ❧❡❛st ②♦✉ ❝❤♦♦s❡ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❡❛t ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♠♦♥✐t♦r ✇❤❛t✬s ✐♥ ✐t✱ ✇❤✐❧❡ s♦♠❡ s❡❧❢s ❤❛✈❡ s♦♠❡ ❡✈✐❧ ❢♦♦❞ ✐♥ st♦❝❦ ❢♦r ②♦✉✳ • ◆❡✈❡r ❦❡❡♣ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ❝❛s❤ ♦♥ ②♦✉ t♦ ❜✉② s♦♠❡ ❥✉♥❦ ❢♦♦❞✱ s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s ❤❛✈✐♥❣ ♠♦♥❡② ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❜✉② s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉r st♦♠❛❝❤ ❤❛♣♣❡♥s t♦ ❜❡ ✐♥s✉❧t✐♥❣ ②♦✉✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❣❡t s♦♠❡ ❝r❛♣✳ ✸✸ ✺✳✹ ▼♦❞❡r❛t✐♦♥ ✶✳ ❚❤✐♥❦ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉ ❡❛t✳ ❙❡r✐♦✉s❧②✱ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉ ❝♦♦❦ ✉♣ ❛ ♥✐❝❡ ❜✐❣ ❞✐♥♥❡r✱ ❛s❦ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✧❉♦ ■ r❡❛❧❧② ♥❡❡❞ ❛❧❧ t❤✐s ❢♦♦❞❄✧ ❛♥❞ ✧❍❡❧❧✱ ❛♠ ■ ❡✈❡♥ ❤✉♥❣r②❄✧ ▼❛♥② ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ♠❛❦❡ t❤❡ ♠✐st❛❦❡ ♦❢ ❡❛t✐♥❣ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤✱ ❛♥❞ ♠♦r❡ ♦❢t❡♥ t❤❡ ♠✐st❛❦❡ ♦❢ ❡❛t✐♥❣ ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡②✬r❡ ♥♦t ❡✈❡♥ ❤✉♥❣r②✳ ❋♦r ❤✉♥❞r❡❞s ♦❢ ②❡❛rs✱ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❤❛✈❡ ❜❡❡♥ st✉❝❦ ✐♥ t❤✐s ❤❛❜✐t ♦❢ ❡❛t✐♥❣ ❛t ❝❡rt❛✐♥ t✐♠❡s ♦❢ ❞❛②✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ t❤✐s ♠❛② ❤❛✈❡ ❤❛❞ ❛ ❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ♣✉r♣♦s❡ ❜❛❝❦ ✇❤❡♥ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✇❡r❡ ❧❛❜♦r✐♥❣ ❛❧❧ ❞❛②✱ ✐t ❞♦❡s♥✬t s❡r✈❡ ♠✉❝❤ ♣✉r♣♦s❡ ♥♦✇✱ ✇❤❡♥ ♠♦st ♣❡♦♣❧❡ s✐t ♦♥ t❤❡✐r ❛ss❡s ❛❧❧ ❞❛②✳ ❍❛✈✐♥❣ t❤❡s❡ s❡t ❡❛t✐♥❣ ♣❡r✐♦❞s ❧❡❛❞s t♦ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❡❛t✐♥❣ t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ❛t ♠❡❛❧t✐♠❡s✱ ❜❡❧✐❡✈✐♥❣ t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s t♦ ❜❡ ❤✉♥❣r✐❡r t❤❛♥ t❤❡② ❛r❡✴✇❛♥t✐♥❣ t♦ ✧t✐❞❡ t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s ♦✈❡r✧ ✉♥t✐❧ t❤❡✐r ♥❡①t ♠❡❛❧❀ ♦r ❝❛✉s❡s t❤❡♠ t♦ ❡❛t ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡② ❛r❡♥✬t ❡✈❡♥ ❤✉♥❣r②✳ ✷✳ ❉♦♥✬t ♣✐❣ ♦✉t✳ ■ ❦♥♦✇ ✐t t❛st❡s ❣♦♦❞✱ ❜✉t ❣♦❞✬s s❛❦❡✱ s❤♦✇ s♦♠❡ s❡❧❢ ❝♦♥tr♦❧ ❛♥❞ ♦♥❧② ❡❛t ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞✳ ❆ ❧♦t ♦❢ t❤❡ t✐♠❡✱ ✐t✬s ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❝❛♥✬t ❞♦ t❤✐s t❤❛t t❤❡②✬r❡ s♦ ❢❛t✳ ■ ❦♥♦✇ ✐t ❢❡❡❧s ❜❡tt❡r t♦ ❜❧❛♠❡ ❝❛r❜s ♦r t❤❡ t②♣❡ ♦❢ ❢♦♦❞ ②♦✉ ❡❛t✱ ❜✉t t❤✐s ❥✉st ✐s♥✬t t❤❡ ❝❛s❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ t❤❡ t✐♠❡✳ ✸✳ ❉♦ ♥♦t ❡❛t ❥✉st ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❜♦r❡❞✳ ❆ ❧♦t ♦❢ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❞♦ t❤✐s✱ ❛♥❞ ♦❢t❡♥ ❛r❡♥✬t r❡❛❧❧② ❛✇❛r❡ ♦❢ ✐t✳ ❚r② t♦ ♣❛② ❛tt❡♥t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ st♦♣ ②♦✉r ❤❛♥❞ ❢r♦♠ r❡❛❝❤✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❉♦r✐t♦s ✇❤✐❧❡ ♣❧❛②✐♥❣ ✈✐❞❡♦ ❣❛♠❡s✳ ✸✹ P❛rt ■■ ●❡tt✐♥❣ ❈✉❧t✉r❡❞ ✻ ❈✉❧t✉r❡ ❙♦✱ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❝❧❡❛♥❡❞ ✉♣ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❡❧s❡✳ ❨♦✉✬✈❡ ❣♦t ❛ ❤❛♥❞❧❡ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ♠❛♥♥❡rs✱ ②♦✉r ❝❧♦t❤❡s✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉r ❞✐❡t✳ ❲❤❛t ❡❧s❡ ♥❡❡❞s ✜①✐♥❣❄ ❨♦✉r ❤♦❜❜✐❡s✳ ✻✳✶ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣✐♥❣ ❜r♦❛❞❡r ✐♥t❡r❡sts ❙♦♠❡ ❝❤❡❛♣ ✇❛②s t♦ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❛ ♠♦r❡ ❜❛❧❛♥❝❡❞ ❛♥❞ r❡✜♥❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s❀ • ❇❡ ❈✉r✐♦✉s ✲ ❝✉r✐♦s✐t② ✐s ②♦✉r ♦♥❡ ✇❛② t✐❝❦❡t t♦ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡✱ ❛♥❞ t♦ ❝✉❧t✉r❡✱ ❥✉st ✜❣❤t ②♦✉r ❢❡❛r ♦❢ t❤❡ ✉♥❦♥♦✇♥✱ ❛♥❞ tr②✳ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ ❧❡❛r♥ ❛ ❢r❡❛❦✐♥❣ ❧♦t ❛❜♦✉t ♠❛♥② t❤✐♥❣s ❥✉st ❜② ❜❡✐♥❣ ❝✉r✐♦✉s ❛♥❞ ❛s❦✐♥❣ ❛ ❢❡✇ q✉❡st✐♦♥s✱ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❧♦✈❡ t♦ t❛❧❦ ❛❜♦✉t ✇❤❛t t❤❡② ❦♥♦✇✳ • ❘❡❛❞ ♠♦❛r ✲ ♥♦t ❥✉st ②♦✉r ✉s✉❛❧ tr❛s❤② ❢❛♥t❛s② ❛♥❞ ❜❛❞ s❝✐✲✜✱ ❜✉t ♠❛✐♥str❡❛♠ ✜❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ♥♦♥✜❝t✐♦♥✳ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❡✈❡♥ ❧✐❦❡ ✐t✳ ◆❡❛❧ ❙t❡♣❤❡♥s♦♥✱ ■r✈✐♥❡ ❲❡❧s❤✱ ◆✐❝❦ ❍♦r♥❜② ❛♥❞ ❑✉rt ❱♦♥♥❡❣✉t ❛r❡ ❣♦♦❞ ✇r✐t❡rs t♦ st❛rt ✇✐t❤ ❛♥❞ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ t✐♥❣❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ✴❜✴ s❡♥s❡ ♦❢ ❤✉♠♦r ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡♠✳ ❙❤♦rt st♦r② ❝♦❧❧❡❝t✐♦♥s ✭❧✐❦❡ t❤❡ ❦✐♥❞ ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ ❝r❡❛t✐✈❡ ✇r✐t✐♥❣ ❝❧❛ss❡s✮ ❛r❡ ❛❧s♦ ❛ ❣r❡❛t ✇❛② t♦ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r st✉✛ ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡✳ ❇❡t✇❡❡♥ ②♦✉r ❧♦❝❛❧ ✉s❡❞ ❜♦♦❦st♦r❡ ❛♥❞ ❆♠❛③♦♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ st♦❝❦ ✉♣ ♦♥ ✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣ r❡❛❞✐♥❣ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧ ❢♦r ✈❡r② ❧✐tt❧❡✳ ❍❛✈✐♥❣ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ❜♦♦❦s ❛r♦✉♥❞ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡s ②♦✉r ✐♠❛❣❡ ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉r ❣❡❡❦✐♥❡ss ❧❡ss t❤r❡❛t❡♥✐♥❣✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ✐♥ t♦ t❤❡ ❤✉♠❛♥ tr❛♥s❝❡♥❞❡♥❝❡ t❤✐♥❣ ✭❜❡❝♦♠✐♥❣ ♠♦r❡ ❛♥❞ ♠♦r❡ ✐♥ ✈♦❣✉❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ❝♦✉❧❞ t❤✐♥❦ ♦❢ ✇♦rs❡ ✐❞❡❛s t♦ ❣❛✐♥ ♣♦♣✉❧❛r✐t②✮✱ ❣♦ r❡❛❞ Pr♦♠❡t❤❡✉s ❘✐s✐♥❣ ❜② ❘♦❜❡rt ❆♥t♦♥ ❲✐❧s♦♥✳ ❚❤✐s ❜♦♦❦ ✇✐❧❧ ❤❡❧♣ ②♦✉ ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✱ ❛♥❞ ♣❡r❤❛♣s ❛s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❧②✱ ❤❡❧♣ ②♦✉ ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ ♦t❤❡r ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❘❡❛❞✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❝❧❛ss✐❝s ♥❡✈❡r ❤✉rt ❛♥②♦♥❡ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ✲ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ♠❛st❡r♣✐❡❝❡s ♦✉t t❤❡r❡✱ t❤✐♥❣s ❡✈❡r②♦♥❡ ❝❛♥ r❡❧❛t❡ t♦✱ s✉❝❤ ❛s ❍❡r♠❛♥ ▼❡❧✈✐❧❧❡✬s ▼♦❜②✲❉✐❝❦✱ ♦r ❍✉♥t❡r ❙✳ ❚❤♦♠♣s♦♥✬s ❋❡❛r ❛♥❞ ▲♦❛t❤✐♥❣ ✐♥ ▲❛s ❱❡❣❛s✳ ❙t✉✛ t❤❛t✬s s✉r♣r✐s✐♥❣❧② ❢✉♥ t♦ r❡❛❞✱ ❛♥❞ ❛♥ ❛♠❛③✐♥❣ ❝✉❧t✉r❛❧ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♣♦✐♥t✳ ❖r ②♦✉ ❝♦✉❧❞ ❥✉st ✇❛t❝❤ t❤❡ ♠♦✈✐❡s✳ • ❉r❛✇ ♠♦❛r ✲ ✐t✬s ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❤♦❜❜② t♦ ♣✐❝❦ ✉♣ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥✬t✳ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ s✉❝❦ ❛t ✜rst✱ ❜✉t ❣❡t t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦ ♦✈❡r ✐t ❛♥❞ ❦❡❡♣ ❣♦✐♥❣✳ ❉r❛✇✐♥❣ ♣❛❞s ❛♥❞ ♣❡♥❝✐❧s✱ ❝❤❛r❝♦❛❧✱ ♣❛st❡❧✱ ❡t❝✳ ❝♦st ✈❡r② ❧✐tt❧❡ ❛♥❞ ❧❛st ❛ ❧♦♥❣ t✐♠❡✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ♣❧❡♥t② ♦❢ ❜♦♦❦s t♦ ❤❡❧♣ ✭❉r❛✇✐♥❣ ❖♥ ❚❤❡ ❘✐❣❤t ❙✐❞❡ ❖❢ ❚❤❡ ❇r❛✐♥ ✐s ❛s ❣♦♦❞ ❛ st❛rt ❛s ❛♥②✮✱ ❜✉t t❤❡ ♦♥❧② ✇❛② t♦ ❣❡t ❛♥② ❣♦♦❞ ✐s t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ♣r❛❝t✐❝✐♥❣✳ • ▲❡❛r♥ t♦ ❛♣♣r❡❝✐❛t❡ ❛rt ✲ ❆rt ✐s ❡✈❡r②✇❤❡r❡ ❛♥❞ s❤✐t✳ ❯♥❞❡rst❛♥❞✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❛♣♣r❡❝✐❛t✐♥❣ ✐t ✇✐❧❧ s❡t ②♦✉ ❛♣❛rt ❢r♦♠ ❧♦s❡rs ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❢❡❡❧ ❜❡tt❡r ❛❜♦✉t ②♦✉r ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞✐♥❣ ♦❢ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞ ❛s ❛ ✇❤♦❧❡✳ ❣❡t ❛♥ ❛rt ❤✐st♦r② ❜♦♦❦ ❛♥❞ ✢✐♣ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ✐t t♦ ❣❡t ❛ ❢❡❡❧ ❢♦r ✈❛r✐♦✉s st②❧❡s ✐♠♣r❡ss✐♦♥✐s♠✱ s✉rr❡❛❧✐s♠✱ ♥❡♦❝❧❛ss✐❝✐s♠ ❡t❝✳ ✇❤✐❧❡ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❛t ❛ ✇♦r❦✱ ❛s❦ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛ ❝♦✉♣❧❡ q✉❡st✐♦♥s✳ ✧❲❤❛t✬s ❣♦✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❤❡r❡❄✧✱ ✧❲❤❛t ✈✐s✉❛❧ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝❡ ❞♦ ■ ❤❛✈❡❄✧✱ ✧❲❤❛t ✐s t❤❡ ❛rt✐st tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ❡✈♦❦❡ ❢r♦♠ ♠❡❄✧✱ ✧❲❤❛t ✐s t❤❡ ❛rt✐st tr②✐♥❣ t♦ s❛② t♦ ♠❡❄✧✳ ▲❡❛r♥ t❤❡ ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣ t❡r♠s ❛s t❤❡② r❡❧❛t❡ t♦ ❛rt✿ ❋♦r♠✱ ❧✐♥❡ ✈❛❧✉❡✱ s❤❛♣❡✱ t❡①t✉r❡✱ ❝♦❧♦r✱ ✈❛❧✉❡✱ ❤❛r♠♦♥②✱ ✈❛r✐❡t②✱ ✉♥✐t②✱ ❜❛❧❛♥❝❡✱ ♣r♦♣♦rt✐♦♥✱ ❞♦♠✐♥❛♥❝❡✱ ♠♦✈❡♠❡♥t✱ ❡❝♦♥♦♠②✳ • ▲❡❛r♥ t♦ ❈♦♦❦ ✲ ❝♦♦❦✐♥❣ ✐s ❛ s❡①② s❦✐❧❧✳ ❋✐♥❞ ❛ ❝♦♦❦❜♦♦❦ ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡ ✭❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞s ❚❤❡ ❏♦② ❖❢ ❈♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❜② ❘♦♠❜❛✉❡r ✫ ❇❡❝❦❡r✱ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s ❖♥ ❋♦♦❞ ❛♥❞ ❈♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❜② ❍❛r♦❧❞ ▼❝●❡❡✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❝♦♦❦❜♦♦❦✴❢♦♦❞ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ❣✉✐❞❡ ❢♦r ♥❡r❞s✳✮ ❛♥❞ t❡st ♦✉t s♦♠❡ s✐♠♣❧❡ r❡❝✐♣❡s t♦ st❛rt✳ ❆s ②♦✉ ❣❡t ❜❡tt❡r ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t✱ ❜✉t t♦ ❜❡❣✐♥ st✐❝❦ t♦ t❤❡ r❡❝✐♣❡s ❛s ✇r✐tt❡♥✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❧♦♦❦ ✐♥t♦ ✐❢ t❤❡ ♣✉r♣♦s❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s ❡①❡r❝✐s❡ ✐♥ s❡❧❢ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡♠❡♥t ✐s t♦ ❞♦ ❜❡tt❡r ✇✐t❤ ✇♦♠❡♥✳ ❲♦♠❡♥ ❧♦✈❡ t❤❡✐r ❢♦♦❞✱ ♠♦st ✇♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❝♦♥t❡♥t t♦ ❡❛t t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s ✉♥❛ttr❛❝t✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ ♦♥❝❡ t❤❡②✬r❡ ♠❛rr✐❡❞ ❛ ❤❡❧❧ ♦❢ ❛ ❧♦t ❞♦✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❣♦t ❝♦♦❦✐♥❣ s❦✐❧❧s ②♦✉✬r❡ s❡t ❢♦r ❧✐❢❡✱ ❛s ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ✇✐❧❧ ❛♥ ❛ttr❛❝t✐✈❡ ✇♦♠❡♥ ❜❡ ♠♦r❡ ✇✐❧❧✐♥❣ t♦ ❝♦♠❡ r♦✉♥❞ t♦ ②♦✉r ♣❧❛❝❡ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ♦✛❡r t♦ ❝♦♦❦ ❤❡r ❛ ♠❡❛❧✱ ❜✉t s❤♦✉❧❞ ②♦✉ ❡✈❡r ✇✐s❤ t♦ s❡tt❧❡ ❞♦✇♥ ❛♥❞ ❣❡t ♠❛rr✐❡❞✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❣♦t ❝♦♥tr♦❧ ♦✈❡r ✇❤❛t s❤❡ ❡❛ts t❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣r❡✈❡♥t ❤❡r ❢r♦♠ ❢✉❧✜❧❧✐♥❣ ✇❤❛t s❡❡♠s t♦ ❜❡ ❛❧❧ ♠❛rr✐❡❞ ✇♦♠❡♥✬s ❛♠❜✐t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❜❡❝♦♠✐♥❣ ❛ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ♠♦❜❧✐♥✳ ✸✺ • ❲r✐t❡ ✲ ❆❧❧ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❛ ✇r✐t❡r ✐s t♦ ❤❛✈❡ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦ s❛② ❛♥❞ ❛ ✇❛② t♦ s❛② ✐t ✭❛♥ ♦♣✐♥✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❛ ❢♦r♠ ♦❢ ♠❡❞✐❛✮✳ ❲❤❡t❤❡r ②♦✉ ✇r✐t❡ ✐t ✐♥ ❛ ❜❧♦❣ ♣♦st✱ ♦♥ ❛ r❛♥❞♦♠ ♣✐❡❝❡ ♦❢ ♣❛♣❡r✱ ♦r ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉t❡ t♦ ❚❤❡ ❲❡❧❧✲❈✉❧t✉r❡❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s✱ ✇r✐t✐♥❣ ✐s ❛ ❣r❡❛t t❛❧❡♥t ❛♥❞ ❝❛♥ ❧❡❛❞ t♦ ②♦✉ ❣❡tt✐♥❣ ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r✐③❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❜r♦❛❞❡r s♣❡❝tr✉♠ ♦❢ ✇♦r❞s✱ ♣❤r❛s❡s✱ ❛♥❞ s❧❛♥❣ t❡r♠✐♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s✳ ❚❤✐s ❝♦♠❡s ✐♥ ❤❛♥❞② ❞✉r✐♥❣ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛t✐♦♥✳ ❲r✐t✐♥❣ ✇✐❧❧ ❛❧s♦ ❤❡❧♣ ②♦✉ ✇✐t❤ ✇♦♠❡♥✳ ❊✈❡r② ✇♦♠❛♥ ❧♦✈❡s ✐t ✇❤❡♥ ❛ ❣✉② ❝❛♥ ✇r✐t❡ ❛ ♣♦❡♠ t♦ ❤❡r✱ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ❤♦✇ s❤✐t ✐t ✐s✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ t❡❧❧ ❤❡r t❤❛t ❤❡r ❡②❡s ❛r❡ ❧✐❦❡ st❛r❞✉st ✐♥ ✐❛♠❜✐❝ ♣❡♥t❛♠❡t❡r✱ s❤❡ ✇✐❧❧ st❛❜ ❤❡r ❜❡st ❢r✐❡♥❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❢❛❝❡ ❢♦r ❛ ❝❤❛♥❝❡ t♦ s❧❡❡♣ ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉✳ ❙❤❛❦❡s♣❡❛r❡ ❝❛♥ ❤❡❧♣ ②♦✉ ❤❡r❡✱ r❡❛❞ t❤❡ r♦♠❛♥❝❡ s❝❡♥❡s ✐♥ ❚✇❡❧❢t❤ ◆✐❣❤t ♦r s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✳ ❏✉st ✐❣♥♦r❡ ❘♦♠❡♦ ❛♥❞ ❏✉❧✐❡t✱ t❤❛t s❤✐t ✐s ❝♦♥tr✐✈❡❞ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ❦♥♦✇ ✐t✳ • P❧❛② ♠✉s✐❝ ✲ ❧❡t✬s ❢❛❝❡ ✐t✱ ❡✈❡r②♦♥❡ ❧♦✈❡s ♠✉s✐❝✱ tr✉st ♠❡ t❤❛t ❡✈❡♥ ✐❢ ②♦✉ s✉❝❦ ❛t ✐t✱ ❣✐r❧s ❧♦✈❡s t♦ s❡❡ ❛ ❣✉② ♣❧❛②✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❣✉✐t❛r ✭❥✉st t❛❦✐♥❣ ❝❧❛ss❡s ✐s ❡♥♦✉❣❤✮✳ ❏✉st ♠❛❦❡ s✉r❡ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❣❡tt✐♥❣ ❜❡tt❡r✱ ✐t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ♠❛tt❡r ❤♦✇ s❧♦✇ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❛t ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ❛s ❧♦♥❣ ❛s ②♦✉ ❛r❡✱ ♠❛♥② ❣✐r❧s ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ✐♥t❡r❡st❡❞ ✐♥ ❤❡❛r✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ♣❧❛②✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❣✉✐t❛r ❡✈❡♥ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♦♥❧② ♣❧❛② t❤❡ ✜rst ♣❛rt ♦❢ ❙♠♦❦❡ ♦♥ ❚❤❡ ❲❛t❡r✱ ❜✉t r❡♠❡♠❜❡r t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ♣r❛❝t✐❝✐♥❣❀ ❥✉st ❧✐❦❡ ✐♥ ▼❡❣❛ ▼❛♥✱ t❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ②♦✉ ♣r❛❝t✐❝❡✱ t❤❡ ❜❡tt❡r ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡❝♦♠❡✳ ❋♦r s♦♠❡♦♥❡ ✇❤♦✬s ♥❡✈❡r ♣❧❛②❡❞ ❛ ❣✉✐t❛r ✐♥ t❤❡✐r ❧✐✈❡s✱ ✐t✬s ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❛ ❧♦t ❡❛s✐❡r t❤❛♥ ②♦✉ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② t❤✐♥❦✳ ■t✬s s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❡✈❡r②❜♦❞② ✐s ❝❛♣❛❜❧❡ ♦❢ s♦ ❧♦♥❣ ❛s t❤❡② ♣✉t ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣r❛❝t✐❝❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❡✈❡♥t✉❛❧❧② ✐t✬❧❧ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❤❛❜✐t t♦ ♣r❛❝t✐❝❡ ❡✈❡r②❞❛②✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❜✉② ❛ ❝❤❡❛♣ ❛❝♦✉st✐❝ ❣✉✐t❛r ❢♦r ✩✶✵✵ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ st❛rt✐♥❣ ♦✉t ✭❞♦ ◆❖❚ st❛rt ♦✉t ✇✐t❤ ❛♥ ❡❧❡❝tr✐❝✱ ❛s ✐t ✇✐❧❧ ♥♦t ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉r ✜♥❣❡rs ❛♥② str♦♥❣❡r✱ ❛♥❞ ✇✐❧❧ t❡❛❝❤ ②♦✉ ❜❛❞ ❤❛❜✐ts ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❡✈❡r ✇❛♥t t♦ ❣❡t ✐♥t♦ ❛❝♦✉st✐❝✳ ❙t❛rt ✇✐t❤ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❡❛s②✱ ②❡t s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❤❡❛r❞ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ t✐♠❡s t❤❛t ✐t s❤❛❧❧ ✐♥t❡r❡st ②♦✉✱ ❛♥❞ t❡❛❝❤ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ t♦ ♣❧❛② ♠♦st ♦❢ ✐t✱ ❧✐❦❡ ❙t❛✐r✇❛② t♦ ❍❡❛✈❡♥✳ ●✉✐t❛rs ❛r❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ t❤❡ ❝♦♦❧❡st ✐♥str✉♠❡♥t ❜② ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ♠✉s✐❝❛❧❧② ❛♣❛t❤❡t✐❝ ✇♦♠❡♥✱ t❤❡②✬r❡ ❛ttr❛❝t❡❞ t♦ t❤❡ ❢❛♥t❛s② ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ♦✇♥ r♦❝❦ st❛r✳ ❲❤✐❧st ②♦✉ ♠❛② ✜♥❞ ♦t❤❡r ✐♥str✉♠❡♥ts ❝♦♦❧✱ ❢r♦♠ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧ ❡①♣❡r✐❡♥❝❡ ■✬✈❡ ❢♦✉♥❞ t❤❛t ♠♦st ✇♦♠❡♥ ♦♥❧② ❡✈❡r ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡❧② ❡♥❥♦② ②♦✉r ♠❛❞ ✈✐♦❧✐♥ s❦✐❧❧s ♦♥❝❡ ②♦✉✬✈❡ s❤♦✇♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ✉s❡ ❛ ❣✉✐t❛r t♦♦✳ ❙♦ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣❡tt✐♥❣ ✐♥t♦ ♠✉s✐❝ ❢♦r ✐♠❛❣❡✱ ❛♥♦♥②♠♦✉s s✉❣❣❡sts ❣♦✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❛ ❣✉✐t❛r ❛s ❛ ✜rst ✐♥str✉♠❡♥t✳ ❚❤❡②✬r❡ ❛❧s♦ t❤❡ ♠♦st ❝♦♠♠♦♥❧② ✉s❡❞ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥t✱ s♦ ♦♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ❣❡t ❣♦♦❞ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❝❤❛♥❝❡ t♦ s❤♦✇ ②♦✉r ✇♦rt❤ s❤♦✉❧❞ s♦♠❡ ♣r✐❝❦ ✇❤✐♣ ♦✉t ❤✐s ❣✉✐t❛r ❛♥❞ tr② t♦ ❛ttr❛❝t ❛❧❧ t❤❡ ❢❡♠❛❧❡ ❛tt❡♥t✐♦♥✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❜♦❛st ❛❜♦✉t ②♦✉r ♠✉s✐❝❛❧ s❦✐❧❧s ❡✐t❤❡r✱ t❤❛t ✇❛② ②♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ♣r❛t ✇❤❡♥ ✐t t✉r♥s ♦✉t ②♦✉✬r❡ ♥♦t ❛s ❣♦♦❞ ❛s ②♦✉✬✈❡ ♠❛❞❡ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ♦✉t t♦ ❜❡ ❛♥❞ ✐t✬❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ ❡✈❡♥ ♠♦r❡ ✐♠♣r❡ss✐✈❡ ✐❢ ✐t t✉r♥s ♦✉t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣❧❛② ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❞❡✈✐❧✳ ❉♦♥✬t r❡❧② ♦♥ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ♣❧❛② ❛ ♠❡❛♥ ❣✉✐t❛r t♦ ✇✐♥ ♦✈❡r t❤❡ ❧❛❞✐❡s t❤♦✉❣❤✳ ❯♥❧❡ss ②♦✉✬r❡ ✐♥ ❛ ❜❛♥❞ ✇❤♦ ♦❢t❡♥ ❞♦❡s ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❣✐❣s ✐t ❞❡✜♥✐t❡❧② ✐s♥✬t ❛ t✐❝❦❡t t♦ ❢✉♥❦② t♦✇♥✱ ❜✉t ✐t ❤❡❧♣s ✐♠♣r❡ss t❤❡♠ ❛♥❞ ❤❡❧♣s ②♦✉ ♦♥❡ ✉♣ ♥♦♥✲♠✉s✐❝✐❛♥s✱ ❛♥❞ ❛✈♦✐❞s ②♦✉ ❢r♦♠ ❜❡✐♥❣ ♦♥❡ ✉♣✬❞ ❜② ♦t❤❡r ♠✉s✐❝✐❛♥s✳ ❲♦♠❡♥ ✇❤♦ ♣❧❛② ♠✉s✐❝❛❧ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥ts ✭♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r❧② ❣✉✐t❛r ♦r ♦t❤❡r str✐♥❣ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥ts ✲ ♥♦❜♦❞② ❣✐✈❡s ❛ ❝r❛♣ ❛❜♦✉t ②♦✉r ❝❧❛r✐♥❡t✮ ❛r❡ ❤♦✇❡✈❡r ♦♥t♦ ❛ ♠❛❥♦r ✇✐♥♥❡r ❛s ♠♦st ✇♦♠❡♥ s❡❡♠ t♦ ❞♦ ❢✉❝❦ ❛❧❧ ♦t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ❧♦♦❦ ❣♦♦❞✱ t❛❧❦ ❢♦r ❤♦✉rs✱ s❤♦♣✱ ❡t❝✳✳✳ s♦ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t❤❛t s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ♥✐❝❤❡ ♦❢ ♣❧❛②✐♥❣ ♠✉s✐❝ ❣✉②s ✇✐❧❧ ❞❡✜♥✐t❡❧② ❜❡ ✐♥t❡r❡st❡❞✳ • ❊♥❥♦② ❋✐♥❡ ❈✐♥❡♠❛ ✲ ▲❡t ✉s ❛❧❧ ❢❛❝❡ ✐t✿ ❙♦♠❡ ♠♦✈✐❡s ②♦✉ ❥✉st ❝❛♥♥♦t ❣♦ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❧✐❢❡ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ✇❛t❝❤✐♥❣✱ s✉❝❤ ❛s ❚❛①✐ ❉r✐✈❡r✱ ❙❛t✉r❞❛② ◆✐❣❤t ❋❡✈❡r✱ ❚❤❡ ●♦❞❢❛t❤❡r✱ ❘❡s❡r✈♦✐r ❉♦❣s✱ ❚❤❡ ❲❛❧❧ ❛♥❞ P✉❧♣ ❋✐❝t✐♦♥✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ♠♦✈✐❡s ♠❛❦❡ s✉❝❤ ❣♦♦❞ ❝✉❧t✉r❛❧ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♣♦✐♥ts✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ s❡❡♠ ❧✐❦❡ ❛♥ ✉♥❝✉❧t✉r❡❞ ❜✐t❝❤ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡♥✬t s❡❡♥ ❛t ❧❡❛st s♦♠❡ ♦❢ t❤♦s❡✳ ❆s ❛♥ ❛❞❞❡❞ ❜♦♥✉s✱ ✇❛t❝❤✐♥❣ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❛r✐❡s✱ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r❧② ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t❛❧✱ ♠✐❧✐t❛r② ❛♥❞ ♣♦❧✐t✐❝❛❧ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❛r✐❡s✱ ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ s❡❡♠ ❧✐❦❡ ❛♥ ✐♥t❡❧❧❡❝t✉❛❧ ❛♥❞ ❡❞✉❝❛t❡❞ ❛♥♦♥ ✲ r❡❣❛r❞❧❡ss ♦❢ ✇❤❡t❤❡r t❤❛t ✐s tr✉❡✳ • ❚✐♥❦❡r ✲ ❚✐♥❦❡r✐♥❣ ✐s ②♦✉r ❜❛s✐❝ s❦✐❧❧ t♦ s✉r✈✐✈✐♥❣✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ♣✉t t✇♦ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ♦♥ ❛ ❞❡s❡rt ✐s❧❛♥❞✱ ♦♥❡ ✇❤♦ ❦♥♦✇s ❤✐s ✇❛② ❛r♦✉♥❞ t❤✐♥❣s✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ✇❤♦✬s ❜❡❡♥ s♣❡♥❞✐♥❣ ❤✐s ❧✐❢❡ ❝❛❧❧✐♥❣ ❝✉st♦♠❡r s❡r✈✐❝❡✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❛ss✉r❡❞ t❤❛t ♦♥❡ ✇✐❧❧ ❧✐✈❡ ♠✉❝❤ ❧♦♥❣❡r t❤❛♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r✳ ❚✐♥❦❡r✐♥❣ ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉r ✇❤♦❧❡ ❧✐❢❡ ❡❛s✐❡r ❛♥❞ ❢❛st❡r✳ ❋✐①✐♥❣ t❤✐♥❣s ❜② ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✇✐❧❧ ❛❧s♦ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ t❤✐♥❦ ❛❜♦✉t ❤♦✇ st✉✛ ✇♦r❦s ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❧❡❛r♥ ❛♥❞ ❣❡t s♠❛rt❡r✳ ■t ❛❧s♦ ✐s ❛ s❡①② s❦✐❧❧✱ ❢♦r ♠❛♥② ✇♦♠❡♥ ✇✐❧❧ t❤✐♥❦ ②♦✉ ❥✉st ✜①❡❞ t❤❡✐r ✧❧✐❢❡ ❛♥❞ ❞❡❛t❤✧ ✐ss✉❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❜❧✐♥❦ ♦❢ ❛♥ ❡②❡✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ ❛ ❤❡r♦✳ ❚❤❛t✬s ❛❧s♦ ✇❤② ❙▼❇ st✐❧❧ ❡①✐st✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ❛❧❧ ✇♦♠❡♥ ❣❡t ❤♦r♥② ❥✉st ❤❡❛r✐♥❣ t❤❡♠ ②❛✲❤♦♦✦✲✐♥❣✳ ❋r❛♥❦❧②✱ ❡✈❡♥ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥✬t ♠❛❦❡ ♠✉❝❤ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛t✐♦♥ ✇✐t❤ ✐t✱ ✐t✬❧❧ ❛❧✇❛②s ❜❡ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ t❤✐♥❣✱ ❤❡❧♣✐♥❣ ❢r✐❡♥❞s ❛♥❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❧♦♦❦✴❜❡ ♠✉❝❤ ❜❡tt❡r t❤❛♥ ②♦✉ ♦❜❥❡❝t✐✈❡❧② ❛r❡✳ ✕ ❙♦♠❡ ♠❛② s❛② t❤❛t t✐♥❦❡r✐♥❣ ✐s♥✬t ❝✉❧t✉r❡✱ t❤❛t ✐t ✐s t♦♦ ♣r❛❝t✐❝❛❧ ❛♥❞ ♥♦t ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡✱ ❜✉t t✐♥❦❡r✐♥❣ ✇✐❧❧ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ♦❢ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧s✱ ♣r♦❝❡ss❡s ♦❢ ✇♦r❦✐♥❣ t❤❡♠✱ ♣r❝♦❡ss❡s ♦❢ ✇♦r❦✐♥❣ ♦♥ t❤❡♠✱ ✸✻ ❡t❝✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ♥♦t t♦♦ ♠✉❝❤ ♦❢ ❛♥ ✐❞✐♦t ❛♥❞ ❛r❡ ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ ❝✉r✐♦✉s✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❧❡❛r♥ ♠❛♥② t❤✐♥❣s ❜② ❥✉st ❛s❦✐♥❣ ✧❍♦✇ ✐s t❤✐s ❞♦♥❡❄✧ ✻✳✷ ❲❤② ❜♦t❤❡r❄ ▲❡t✬s ❢❛❝❡ ✐t✱ ❣❡❡❦ st✉✛ ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ♠✉❝❤ ❝♦♠♠♦♥ ❣r♦✉♥❞ ✇✐t❤ ♦t❤❡r ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❍❡❧❧✱ t❤❡ s❤❡❡r ❧✐❢❡ s♣❛♥ ♦❢ ♠♦st ❣❡❡❦② s❤✐t ✭❢♦r ❡①❛♠♣❧❡✱ ②♦✉r ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❨❚▼◆❉ ❥♦❦❡✮ ✐s t♦♦ s❤♦rt t♦ ❜❛♥❦ ②♦✉r ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐t② ♦♥✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❛❞❞ t♦ ②♦✉r r❛♥❣❡ ♦❢ ✐♥t❡r❡sts✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ t❛❧❦ t♦ ♠♦r❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✱ ❛♥❞ st❛t✐st✐❝❛❧❧② ✜❢t② ♣❡r❝❡♥t ♦❢ t❤♦s❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❛r❡ ✇♦♠❡♥✳ ❚❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ②♦✉ ❦♥♦✇ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❢❡❡❧ ❛s❤❛♠❡❞ t♦ t❛❧❦ ❛❜♦✉t✱ t❤❡ ❧❡ss ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❢❡❡❧ ❛✇❦✇❛r❞ ✐♥ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛t✐♦♥✳ ❆♥❞ t❤❡♥ ❤♦♣❡❢✉❧❧② ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ r❡❛❞✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❙❡① ❝❤❛♣t❡r ❢♦r ❛ r❡❛s♦♥✳ P❧❡❛s❡ ♥♦t❡ t❤❛t t❤✐s ❞♦❡s♥✬t ♠❡❛♥ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ st♦♣ ❜❡✐♥❣ ✐♥t❡r❡st❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ t❤✐♥❣s ②♦✉ ❛❧r❡❛❞② ❧✐❦❡✳ ❨♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❣✐✈❡ ✉♣ ②♦✉r ❛♥✐♠✉ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉r ✴❜✴ s✉r✜♥❣✱ ❥✉st t❛❝❦ s♦♠❡ ♦t❤❡r ✐♥t❡r❡sts ♦♥ s♦ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t s❡❡♠ s♦ s✐♥❣❧❡✲♠✐♥❞❡❞✳ ❇✉t ❧❡t✬s ❢❛❝❡ ✐t ✲ ❝✉❧t✉r❡ ✐s s❡①②✳ ❈✉❧t✉r❡ ✐s t❤❡ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ✈❡r② ❢❡✇ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❤❛✈❡✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❧✐st❡♥ t♦ ❛ ❲❛❣♥❡r ❝♦♠♣♦s✐t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❡♥❥♦② ✐t ❥✉st ❛s ♠✉❝❤ ❛s ②♦✉ ❞♦ ✧▼② ❈❤❡♠✐❝❛❧ ❘♦♠❛♥❝❡✧ ✭②♦✉ t❛st❡❧❡ss ❢✉❝❦✮✱ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❝♦♥tr♦❧ ♦❢ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✳ P❡♦♣❧❡ ✇❤♦ ❝❛♥ ♣❧❛② ♠✉s✐❝❛❧ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥ts ✭s❡❡✿ ◆♦t ●✉✐t❛r✴❇❛ss✴❉r✉♠s✮ ♥❛t✉r❛❧❧② s❡❡♠ ♠♦r❡ ❝♦❧❧❡❝t❡❞ t❤❡♥ t❤♦s❡ ✇❤♦ ❝❛♥ ♥♦t✳ ❍❡❧❧✱ ❡✈❡♥ ❛♣♣r❡❝✐❛t✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞ ❛rt ❝❛♥ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ t❤❛t ♠✉❝❤ ♠♦r❡ ✐♥tr✐❣✉✐♥❣ ✲ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ ✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ♠❛t✉r❡ t♦ ②♦✉r ♣❡❡rs✱ ❛♥❞ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t t♦ ②♦✉r s✉♣❡r✐♦rs✳ ❲❤② ♥♦t ❣♦ ❢♦r ✐t❄ ❇❡✐♥❣ ✧❝✉❧t✉r❡❞✧ ❛❧s♦ ❢❡❡❧s ❞❛♠♥ ❣♦♦❞✳ ■t✬s ♦♥❡ t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❜❡❛t ❛❧❧ ②♦✉r ♠❛t❡s ❛t ▼❛r✐♦ ❑❛rt ❡✈❡♥ t❤♦✉❣❤ t❤❡② ❛❧✇❛②s s❡❡♠ t♦ ❣❡t ❜❧✉❡ s❤❡❧❧s ♦♥ t❤❡ ❧❛st ❧❛♣✳ ❚❤❛t ♠❛② ❢❡❡❧ ❣♦♦❞ t❡♠♣♦r❛r✐❧②✱ ❜✉t ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❦♥♦✇ t❤❛t ♠♦st ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ■❘▲ ❞♦♥✬t ❣✐✈❡ ❛ s❤✐t s♦ ②♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❢❡❡❧ ♣r♦✉❞ ♦❢ ✐t✳ ◆♦t ❧✐❦❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ♣r♦✉❞ ♦❢ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❤❛♥❣ ❛ ♣❛✐♥t❡❞ ❝❛♥✈❛s ♦♥ ②♦✉r ✇❛❧❧✱ ♦r ✇r✐t❡ t❤❡ ❞❛❞❞② ♦❢ ❛❧❧ ❝❤♦r❞ ♣r♦❣r❡ss✐♦♥s✳ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ ❧❡ss ✐♥❝❧✐♥❡❞ t♦ s❡❧❢ ❧♦❛t❤✐♥❣ ♥♦✇ t❤❛t ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❥✉st✐✜❡❞ t♦ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t❛❧❡♥ts ❛♥❞ s❦✐❧❧s ♠♦st ♦t❤❡r ❝❛♥✬t ❞♦✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❢❡❡❧ ♠♦r❡ ❝♦♥✜❞❡♥t ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ♦❢ ✐t✳ ❍❛✈✐♥❣ ✧❝✉❧t✉r❡✧ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❛❝❦ ✉♣ t❤❡ ❝♦♥✜❞❡♥t s✇❛❣❣❡r t❤✐s ❣✉✐❞❡ ❤❛s ❛❞✈✐s❡❞ ✇✐t❤ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ♦❢ ❛❝t✉❛❧ ✇♦rt❤✳ ✻✳✸ ❊✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❈✉❧t✉r❡ ❆♥❞ ❜② ✧❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣✧ ■ ♠❡❛♥ ✐t✱ t❤❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ❤❡r❡ ✐s t❤❛t ♥♦t ❡✈❡r②♦♥❡ ❧✐❦❡s t❤❡ s❛♠❡ st✉✛✱ t❤❡ ❜❡st t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❞♦ ✐s t♦ tr② t♦ ✜♥❞ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ♣♦♣✉❧❛r ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❣♦♥♥❛ t❛❧❦ ✇✐t❤ ✭tr② s♦♠❡ s♠❛❧❧ t❛❧❦ ❛t ✜rst✱ ❡✈❡♥ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❧✐♠✐t❡❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ t♦ ✧t❤❛t s♦✉♥❞s ✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣✧ ♦r ✧■✬❞ ❧✐❦❡ t♦ tr② t❤❛t✧✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❣❡t ✐♥❢♦ ❛t ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❧❡❛r♥ ❛❜♦✉t✮✱ ❜✉t t❤❡♥ ❛❣❛✐♥✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❥✉st ❤❛t❡ ②❛♦✐✱ ②♦✉ ✇♦♥✬t ❣♦ t♦ ✴②✴ ❥✉st t♦ ❣❡t ✐♥❢♦ ❛❜♦✉t ②❛♦✐ st✉✛ t♦ t❛❧❦ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ②❛♦✐ ❢❛♥❣✐r❧✱ t❤❡r❡ ✇✐❧❧ s✉r❡❧② ❜❡ ♠❛♥② ♦t❤❡r t❤✐♥❣s t❤❛t ✐♥t❡r❡st ❤❡r✱ ❡✐t❤❡r tr② t♦ ✜♥❞ ❝♦♠♠♦♥ ✐♥t❡r❡st ♦r ●❚❋❖✱ ✐♥ s♦♠❡ ❝❛s❡s✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❡✈❡♥ ♣r♦✉❞❧② t❛❧❦ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ✈✐❞❡♦ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ✉♣❧♦❛❞❡❞ ✐♥ ❨♦✉t✉❜❡ ✇❤❡r❡ ②♦✉ ❜❡❛t ▼❡❣❛ ▼❛♥ ✐♥ r❡❝♦r❞ t✐♠❡✱ tr② t♦ ❡①♣❛♥❞ ②♦✉r ❝✉❧t✉r❡✱ ❡✈❡♥ ❛ ❧✐♥❡ ♦r t✇♦ ❛❜♦✉t ❛ t❤❡♠❡ ♠❛② ❜❡ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ✭❤♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❞♦♥✬t ♣r❡t❡♥❞ t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ❡✈❡r② t❤❡♠❡ ♦r t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t ❛ t❤❡♠❡✱ t❤❛t ❥✉st ♠❛❦❡s ②♦✉ ❛ ♣r❡t❡♥t✐♦✉s ❢❛❣❣♦t✮✳ ▲❡t✬s t❛❦❡ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❡①❛♠♣❧❡ ❛♥❞ s❛② ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❣❡t ✐♥t♦ t❤❡ ❝♦❧❧❡❣❡ ♣❛rt② s❝❡♥❡ ❛t ②♦✉r ❧♦❝❛❧ ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞✉♠♣✐♥❣ ❣r♦✉♥❞✱ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ❤♦✇ t♦ ♥♦t ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❞❛♠♥ ❢♦♦❧✳ ❚❤❡ ❜❡st ✇❛② t♦ ❞♦ t❤✐s✱ s✐♠♣❧② ♣✉t✱ ✐s t♦ ✐♠♠❡rs❡ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✐♥ t❤❡✐r ✇♦r❧❞✳ ▲✐st❡♥ t♦ s♦♠❡ s❤✐tt② ◆✐❝❦❡❧❜❛❝❦ t✉♥❡s✱ ❣♦ t♦ ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤✱ ❛♥❞ tr② t♦ ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ t❤❡✐r ♠❡♥t❛❧✐t②✳ ❈✉❧t✉r❡ ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❜❡ ❛❧❧ ❛❜♦✉t ❈❤r✐st✐❛♥✐t②✲✐♥s♣✐r❡❞ ❛rt ❛♥❞ ♠✉s✐❝ ✲ ✐t ❝❛♥ s✐♠♣❧② ❜❡ ❝✉❧t✉r❡ ♦❢ ❆◆❨ s✉❜❣r♦✉♣✱ ❥✉st tr❛♥s❧❛t❡❞ ✐♥t♦ ❛rt✐st✐❝ ❢♦r♠s ♦❢ s♦♠❡ ❦✐♥❞✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥❝❡ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ ❛ ❝✉❧t✉r❡ ❛♥❞ ❛ ❢❛❞✳ ❋♦r ✐♥st❛♥❝❡✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦ ❞♦✉❜t t❤❛t ✐♥ ✶✵ ②❡❛rs t❤❡ ▼✐❛♠✐ ❇❡❛❝❤ ✐♥s♣✐r❡❞ ▼❚❱✲❝❤r✐st❡♥❡❞ ❆❜❡r❝r♦♠❜✐❡ ❛♥❞ ❋✐t❝❤ ❧♦♦❦ ✇✐❧❧ ❞✐❡✳ ❋r♦♠ t❤❡r❡✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ ❝❛✉❣❤t ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ t❤✐s ❝❧♦t❤✐♥❣✱ ✐t ✇✐❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ r♦✉❣❤❧② ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t t♦ ②♦✉ ✇❡❛r✐♥❣ ❛ ❧❡✐s✉r❡ s✉✐t✿ ❋✉❝❦✐♥❣ st✉♣✐❞✳ ❚❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❣♦❡s ❢♦r ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ❝❧❡✈❡r ●♦t❤✐❝ ❛rt✱ ❛♥❞ ❊♠♦ ♠✉s✐❝✿ ❖♥❡ ❞❛②✱ ✐t ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ st✉♣✐❞✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❈❧❛ss✐❝❛❧ ♠✉s✐❝✱ ✐♥t❡❧❧❡❝t✉❛❧ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❜❡❛✉t✐❢✉❧ r❡♥❛✐ss❛♥❝❡ ❛rt ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡✈❡r ❜❡ st✉♣✐❞✳ ❚❤❛t✬s ✇❤② s♦ ♠✉❝❤ ♦❢ ❝✉❧t✉r❡ ✐s r♦♦t❡❞ ✐♥ s✉❝❤ t❤✐♥❣s✿ ❇❡❝❛✉s❡ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ✇❤❛t✱ ②♦✉r ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ♦❢ t❤❡♠ ✭❛♥❞ ❛♣♣r❡❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡♠✮ ✇✐❧❧ ♥❡✈❡r ❤✉rt✳ ❆❧s♦✱ ♥❡✈❡r ❜❛❝❦ ♦✉t ♦♥ ♥❡✇ t❤✐♥❣s✱ ❛s ✉♥♣❧❡❛s❛♥t ❛s t❤❡② ♠✐❣❤t ❧♦♦❦✱ ❛s ❧♦♥❣ ❛s ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡♥✬t tr✐❡❞ t❤❡♠✱ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ♥♦ r✐❣❤t ♦❢ ❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❛♥ ♦♣✐♥✐♦♥ ❛❜♦✉t ✐t✱ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❝✉r✐♦✉s ❛❜♦✉t t❤✐♥❣s ❛♥❞ tr②✐♥❣ t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡♠ ✇✐❧❧ ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ ❛ ❜♦♦st ✐♥ ❦♥♦✇❛❜✐t♦❢❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣✲♥❡ss✱ ❧✐tt❧❡ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ♦❢ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ✐s s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s ❜❡tt❡r t❤❛♥ ❞❡❡♣ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ♦❢ ❛ ❢❡✇ t❤✐♥❣s✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ✐♥ t❤❛t ♠❛tt❡r✳ ❇❡✐♥❣ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡❛❜❧❡ ♦♥ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ❣♦♦❞✱ ❜✉t ♦♥❝❡ t❤❡ t♦♣✐❝ ❧❡❛✈❡s t❤❛t s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❛s✐❞❡✱ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❢✉❝❦❡❞✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♦❢ ❝♦✉rs❡ ❢♦❝✉s ♦♥ ❛ ❢❡✇ s♣❡❝✐✜❝ t❤✐♥❣s ♦❢ ②♦✉r ✐♥t❡r❡st✱ ❜✉t ❦♥♦✇✐♥❣ ❛ ❜✐t ❛❜♦✉t ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ✇✐❧❧ ❤❡❧♣ ②♦✉ ♦✉t ❣r❡❛t❧② ✐♥ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛t✐♦♥s✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛r❡✱ ❜② ❡①♣❡r✐❡♥❝❡✱ ♣r❡tt② r❛♥❞♦♠ ✭t❤♦✉❣❤ ✈❡r② ♦r❣❛♥✐③❡❞✱ ❝❤❛♦s t❤❡♦r②❄✮✳ ✸✼ ✼ ❇♦♦❦s ❖❍ ❙❍■✲✱ ▲■❚❊❘❆❚❯❘❊✦ ❙♦✱ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❝❧❡❛♥❡❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✉♣✱ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❣♦tt❡♥ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ t❤❡ st❛♥❞❛r❞ ✐ss✉❡ ▼❝❏♦❜ ❛♥❞ ❛r❡ ♠♦st ❧✐❦❡❧② st❛rt✐♥❣ t♦ ❢❡❡❧ t❤❡ ♦♥s❡t ♦❢ ▲♦❧✐✲❧✉st✳ ◆♦✇ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❥✉st ❜❛r❡❧② ♣❛ss ❢♦r tr❛✐❧❡rtr❛s❤✱ ✐t✬s t✐♠❡ ②♦✉ ❣❡t ❝✉❧t✉r❡❞✳ ❍❛r❞✳ ❚❤✐s ❡♥t❛✐❧s ②♦✉ ❘❊❆❉■◆●✱ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❤❛✈❡ st❛rt❡❞ ❞♦✐♥❣ ❛ ❧♦♥❣ t✐♠❡ ❛❣♦✱ ❜✉t ✇❡r❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② t♦♦ st♦♥❡❞ t♦ ❜♦t❤❡r ✇✐t❤ ❛t t❤❡ t✐♠❡✳ ❖❜✈✐♦✉s❧②✱ ■✬♠ ♥♦t ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❛ss✉♠❡ t❤❛t ②♦✉✱ t❤❡ ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❆♥♦♥✱ ✐s ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❜♦t❤❡r r❡❛❞✐♥❣ ❲❛r ❛♥❞ P❡❛❝❡ ❥✉st ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ❲✐❦✐❝❤❛♥ t♦❧❞ ②♦✉ t♦✳ ❲❡ ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ t❤❛t ②♦✉r ❜r❛✐♥ ❤❛s ❧✐♠✐t❡❞ s♣❛❝❡ ❛♥❞ t❤❛t ②♦✉✬❞ r❛t❤❡r r❡♠✐♥✐s❝❡ ❛❜♦✉t ❆③✉♠❛♥❣❛ ❉❛✐♦❤ t❤❛♥ t❤❡ r♦❝❦✐♥❣ ❢✉r② t❤❛t ✐s ❚❤❡ ❈♦❧❧❡❝t✐✈❡ ❲♦r❦s ♦❢ ❙❤❛❦❡s♣❡❛r❡✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ❜❡❣✐♥ t♦ ♣✉rs✉❡ ❛ ✭❤♦♣❡❢✉❧❧②✮ ❧✐❢❡❧♦♥❣ ❛❝q✉❛✐♥t❛♥❝❡ ✇✐t❤ ❜♦♦❦s✱ ❤❡ ♠❛② ❝♦♠❡ t♦ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r t❤❛t t❤❡ ♣♦✇❡rs ♦❢ ❤✐s ✐♠❛❣✐♥❛t✐♦♥✱ ❤❡r❡t♦❢♦r❡ ♦♥❧② s❡t t♦ ✇♦r❦ ❛♥❛❧②③✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠②r✐❛❞ ♦❢ ♣♦s✐t✐♦♥s t✇♦ ❧♦❧✐s ❝❛♥ t❛❦❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ s❛❝❦✱ ❛r❡ ❢❛r ♠♦r❡ ❡♥t❡rt❛✐♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ✐❧❧✉str❛t✐✈❡ t❤❛♥ t❡❧❡✈✐s✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ♠❛❣❛③✐♥❡s ❝♦✉❧❞ ❡✈❡r ❜❡✳ ❲❤❡r❡ t♦ st❛rt❄ ❖❜✈✐♦✉s❧②✱ ✇❤❡r❡ t♦ st❛rt ❞❡♣❡♥❞s ❡♥t✐r❡❧② ♦♥ ✇❤❛t ❦✐♥❞ ♦❢ ❜♦♦❦s ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡✳ ■✬❧❧ ❛❧❧♦✇ ♠②s❡❧❢ t♦ ❛ss✉♠❡ t❤❛t s✐♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ❞♦ ❢r❡q✉❡♥t ✴❜✴✱ ②♦✉✬r❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② t✐❝❦❧❡❞ ❜② ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❢❡❛t✉r✐♥❣ s♠❛❧❧ ❣✐r❧s✱ s❤✐♥② t❤✐♥❣s ❛♥❞ ♣r❡tt② ❢✉❝❦❡❞ ✉♣ ❤✉♠♦r✳ ❚❤✉s❧②✱ ■✬❧❧ ♣❡r♠✐t ♠②s❡❧❢ t♦ r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞ ②♦✉ ◆❡✐❧ ❙t❡♣❤❡♥s♦♥✬s ❙♥♦✇ ❈r❛s❤✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❧✉❝❦✐❧② ❡♥♦✉❣❤✱ ❤❛♣♣❡♥s t♦ ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ❛❧❧ t❤r❡❡✳ ❍♦✇ ♠❛♥② ❜♦♦❦s ♠✉st ❛ ♠❛♥ r❡❛❞✳✳✳ ❘❡❛❞✐♥❣ ✐s♥✬t s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ✜♥✐s❤✳ ▼✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧✐s♠✱ ❛t ❜❡st ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❥✉st ❜❡ ✐♥❛❝t✐✈❡✱ ✇❛✐t✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❞❛② ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❢❛❧❧ ❜❛❝❦✐♥❣ ✐♥t♦ t❤❡ ❤❛❜✐t ♦❢ t✉r♥✐♥❣ tr✐❝❦s ❢♦r ✉s❡❞ ❝♦♣✐❡s ♦❢ ❆♥♥✐❡ ❖♥ ▼② ▼✐♥❞ ♦r ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❜② ❙❛r❛❤ ❲❛t❡rs✳ ❖♥ ❛ s❧✐❣❤t❧② ♠♦r❡ s❡r✐♦✉s ♥♦t❡✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦ s❡t ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ❜♦♦❦s ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ r❡❛❞ t♦ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❝✉❧t✉r❡❞✳ ❖❜✈✐♦✉s❧②✱ t❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ②♦✉ r❡❛❞✱ t❤❡ ❜❡tt❡r✱ ❜✉t tr② t♦ ♣❛❝❡ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ♦r ②♦✉r ❡①❝❡ss✐✈❡ ❝✉❧t✉r✐♥❣ ♠✐❣❤t ❥✉st t✉r♥ ②♦✉ ❇r✐t✐s❤✲❇r✐t✐s❤✱ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡ ✇✐t❤ ❨♦r❦s❤✐r❡ ❛❝❝❡♥t✱ ❜❛❞ ❞❡♥t❛❧ ✇♦r❦ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❡ ❧❛❝❦ ♦❢ s❡① ❞r✐✈❡✳ ❨♦✉ ❡①♣❡❝t ♠❡ t♦ ❜✉② t❤❡s❡❄ ❚❤❡ ❡❛s✐❡st ✇❛② t♦ ❣❡t ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛ ❜♦♦❦ ✐s ♦❢ ❝♦✉rs❡✱ ❜② ✈✐s✐t✐♥❣ ❛ ❜♦♦❦st♦r❡ ♦r r❛✐❞✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❧♦❝❛❧ ❧✐❜r❛r②✳ ❚❤❡ ❜❡st ♣❛rt ✐s✱ ♠♦st ❢❛♠♦✉s ✇♦r❦s ♦❢ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ ✇❡r❡ ✇r✐tt❡♥ ❜② ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ✇❤♦ ❛r❡ ♥♦✇ ❞❡❛❞✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♣r✐❝❡ s♦♠❡✇❤❛t ❧♦✇❡r ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❛❧❧ t❤♦s❡ ♣❡s❦② r♦②❛❧t✐❡s✳ ▼❛♥② t❤r✐❢t st♦r❡s ❛♥❞ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ②♦✉r ❧♦❝❛❧ ❧✐❜r❛r② ✇✐❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ ②❡❛r❧② ✭♦r ②❡❛r r♦✉♥❞✮ s❛❧❡s ♦♥ ♦❧❞ ❜♦♦❦s✱ t❤✐s ✇❛② ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ✜♥❞ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❛ ❧❛r❣❡ s✉♠ ♦❢ ❢❛t ♦❧❞ ❜♦♦❦s ❢♦r ♣r❛❝t✐❝❛❧❧② ♥♦t❤✐♥❣ ✭♦♥❡ ❞♦❧❧❛r ❢♦r ▼♦❜② ❉✐❝❦❄ ❋✉❝❦ ❨❡❛❤✮✳ ❇❡❝❛✉s❡ ❧❡ts ❢❛❝❡ ✐t✱ ✐t✬s ✐♠♣r❡ss✐✈❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❧❛❞✐❡s ❛♥❞ ✐♥t✐♠✐❞❛t✐♥❣ t♦ ♦t❤❡r ❣✉②s t♦ ❝♦♠❡ ✐♥t♦ ②♦✉r ♣❧❛❝❡ ❛♥❞ s❡❡ ❛ t♦✇❡r✐♥❣ ✶✺ ❢♦♦t ✇✐❞❡ ❜♦♦❦s❤❡❧❢ ♣❛❝❦❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❝❧❛ss✐❝ t❤♦✉❣❤t ❡✈♦❦✐♥❣ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡✳ ❇✉t s✉♣♣♦s❡ ❢♦r ❛ s❡❝♦♥❞ t❤❛t ②♦✉✬r❡ s❤✐t✲❜r♦❦❡ ✭❆s t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ❆♥♦♥②♠✐✐ ❛r❡✮ ♦r ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ❜❛❧❧s t♦ ❝❤❡❝❦ ♦✉t ❱❧❛❞✐♠✐r ◆❛❜♦❦♦✈✬s ▲♦❧✐t❛✱ ❢♦r ❢❡❛r ♦❢ P❛rt②✲✈❛♥♥✐♥❣✱ ❲❤❛t t❤❡♥ ❛r❡ ②♦✉ t♦ ❞♦❄ ❋r❡t ♥♦t✱ ❢♦r ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ❤❛s ❝♦♠❡ ✉♣ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❣❡♥✐✉s s♦❧✉t✐♦♥ ❢♦r t❤✐s s✐♠♣❧❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠✳ ❇❡❤♦❧❞ t❤❡ ❣❧♦r② t❤❛t ✐s✱ ❇♦♦❦❝❤❛♥✳ ❇♦♦❦❝❤❛♥ ✐s ❡①❛❝t❧② ✇❤❛t ✐t s❛②s✱ ❛ ✯❝❤❛♥ t❤❛t ❝❛t❡rs ❢♦r t❤❡ ♥✐❝❤❡ ♦❢ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ t❤❛t ❛r❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t❡ ❤✉♠❛♥ ❜❡✐♥❣s✳ ❇✉t ♦❝❝❛s✐♦♥❛❧❧②✱ ❤❡❧♣❧❡ss ✴❜✴❛st❛r❞s ✇❛♥❞❡r ✐♥t♦ ❇♦♦❦❝❤❛♥ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❦♥♦✇✐♥❣ ✇❤❛t t❤❡ ❤❡❧❧ t♦ ❞♦✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❤♦✇ t♦ ✉s❡ ❇♦♦❦❝❤❛♥ ❚❍❊ ❘■●❍❚ ❲❆❨✿ ✶✳ ❙❡❛r❝❤ t❤❡ ❆r❝❤✐✈❡ t❤r❡❛❞s ❢♦r ②♦✉r ❜♦♦❦ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ✇❤✐♥✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t ♥♦t ✜♥❞✐♥❣ ✐t✳ ✷✳ ❈♦♣② ♦r ❙❛✈❡ ❆s t❤❡ ❛❝t✉❛❧ ■▼❆●❊✱ ♥♦t t❤❡ t❤✉♠❜♥❛✐❧✳ ✸✳ ❆❞❞ ✳r❛r t♦ t❤❡ ❡♥❞ ♦❢ t❤❡ ✜❧❡♥❛♠❡ ❛♥❞ r✉♥ ✐t✳ ✭✇✐t❤ ❲✐♥r❛r✱ ♦❢❝♦✉rs❡✮ ✹✳ ❖❜❧✐❣❛t♦r② ✧❄❄❄✧ ♣♦st✳ ✺✳ ❘❡❛♣ t❤❡ Pr♦✜t✱ ❆❑❆ ②♦✉r ♥❡✇❧② ❛❝q✉✐r❡❞ ❜♦♦❦✳ ✸✽ ✼✳✶ ❍♦♦❦ ♠❡ t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦ ✉♣✱ ❞♦❝ ◆♦✇ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛❝❝❡ss t♦ ❛ ❱❆❙❚ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ✳❥♣❣ ❜❛s❡❞ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ✇❛♥t s♦♠❡ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❇❡❤♦❧❞ t❤❡ ❧✐st ♦❢ ❜♦♦❦s ✇♦rt❤ r❡❛❞✐♥❣✱ ❜② ♦r❞❡r ♦❢ ●❡♥r❡✳ ❉♦ ✐t ❢❛❣❣♦t✳ ❈❧❛ss✐❝s✿ ❆ ✇♦r❞ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ❝❧❛ss✐❝s ✲ t❤❡s❡ ❛r❡ ❜♦♦❦s t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ r❡❛❞ s♦♦♥❡r ♦r ❧❛t❡r✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ r❡❛s♦♥ t❤❛t t❤❡② ❡♥❞✉r❡❞ t❤❡ t❡st ♦❢ t✐♠❡✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡② ❛r❡ s♦ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❞❡❧✐❝✐♦✉s✳ P✉t ❞♦✇♥ t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❢❛♥✜❝s ❛♥❞ ❤✐t t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❧✐❜r❛r②✱ ❢❛t❛ss✳ ❍❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❛ ❢❡✇ ✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣ ♦♥❡s✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ❝❧❛ss✐❝s ❛r❡ ❛❞♠✐tt❡❞❧② ❜♦r✐♥❣ ❝r❛♣✳ • ❆♥②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❝❛♠❡ ♦✉t ♦❢ ❆♥❝✐❡♥t ❘♦♠❡✱ ❆♥❝✐❡♥t ●r❡❡❝❡✱ ❆♥❝✐❡♥t ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣✳ • ❱✐❝t♦r ❍✉❣♦✿ ▲❡s ▼✐s❡r❛❜❧❡s✱ ❚❤❡ ❍✉♥❝❤❜❛❝❦ ♦❢ ◆♦tr❡ ❉❛♠❡ • ❋②♦❞♦r ❉♦st♦②❡✈s❦②✿ ❈r✐♠❡ ❆♥❞ P✉♥✐s❤♠❡♥t✱ ❚❤❡ ❇r♦t❤❡rs ❑❛r❛♠♦③♦✈ • ▲❡♦ ❚♦❧st♦②✿ ❲❛r ❛♥❞ P❡❛❝❡✱ ❆♥♥❛ ❑❛r❡♥✐♥❛ ✭❜♦t❤ ❛r❡ ❤❡✉❣ t❤♦✉s❛♥❞ ♣❛❣❡ ❡♣✐❝ ♥♦✈❡❧s✮ • ❙❤❛❦❡s♣❡❛r❡✿ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❣❡t ②♦✉r ❤❛♥❞s ♦♥✳ ✭P❘❖❚■P✿ ❏✉❧✐❡t ✐s ❛ ❧♦❧✐✮ • ❈❤❛✉❝❡r✿ ❚❤❡ ❈❛♥t❡r❜✉r② ❚❛❧❡s • ❊♠✐❧② ❇r♦♥të✿ ❲✉t❤❡r✐♥❣ ❍❡✐❣❤ts ✭t❤❡ ♦♥❧② ❜♦♦❦ s❤❡ ❡✈❡r ✇r♦t❡✱ ❜✉t ✐t✬s ❛ ❞❡❧✐❝✐♦✉s r❡❛❞✮ • ▼❛❝❤✐❛✈❡❧❧✐✿ ❚❤❡ Pr✐♥❝❡ ✭r❡❛❞✿ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❜❡ ❛ ❞♦✉❝❤❡✮ • ▼❛r✐♦ P✉③♦✿ ❚❤❡ ●♦❞❢❛t❤❡r ✭r❛♣❡✱ ❞r✉❣s✱ r❛✐❞s✱ r❛❝✐s♠✱ ❛♥ ❤❡r♦✱ ❡✈❡♥ ❛♥♦♥②♠♦✉s✱ t❤✐s ❜♦♦❦ ❤❛s ❛❧❧ ♦❢ t❤✐s ✶✶ ❛♥❞ ♠♦r❡✮ ✶✷ • ▼❛rq✉✐s ❞❡ ❙❛❞❡✿ ❏✉st✐♥❡✱ ■♥❝❡st ✭❛❧t❡r♥❛t❡❧② t✐t❧❡❞ ❊✉❣❡♥✐❡ ❞❡ ❋r❛♥✈❛❧✮ • ❍❡♠✐♥❣✇❛②✿ ❚❤❡ ❙✉♥ ❆❧s♦ ❘✐s❡s✱ ❋♦r ❲❤♦♠ ❚❤❡ ❇❡❧❧ ❚♦❧❧s ✭❈♦♥t❛✐♥s t✐ts ❛♥❞ s❤♦♦t✐♥❣✮ ◆♦♥✜❝t✐♦♥✿ • ❆❞♦❧❢ ❍✐t❧❡r✿ ▼❡✐♥ ❑❛♠♣❢✳ ■t ✐s ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ✐♠♣r❡ss✐✈❡ t♦ t❛❧❦ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ str♦♥❣ ♣♦✐♥ts ❛♥❞ ❣♦♦❞ q✉❛❧✐t✐❡s ♦❢ s♦♠❡♦♥❡ s♦ ✉♥✐✈❡rs❛❧❧② ❤❛t❡❞✳ • ❑❛r❧ ▼❛r①✿ ❚❤❡ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐st ▼❛♥✐❢❡st♦✳ ❆ ❣r❡❛t ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ r❡❛❞✱ ❜✉t ❞♦♥✬t ❛❝t ❧✐❦❡ ❑✐♥❣ ❙❤✐t ♦r ❣♦ ❇♦s♥✐❛♥✴❆♥❛r❝❤✐st ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ②♦✉ r❡❛❞ ✐t✳ ❋✐❝t✐♦♥ ✭❯♥❝❛t❡❣♦r✐③❡❞✮✿ • ❑✉rt ❱♦♥♥❡❣✉t✿ ❈❛t✬s ❈r❛❞❧❡ ❛♥❞ ❙❧❛✉❣❤t❡r❤♦✉s❡ ❋✐✈❡ • ❏✳ ❉✳ ❙❛❧✐♥❣❡r✿ ❈❛t❝❤❡r ✐♥ t❤❡ ❘②❡ • ❱❧❛❞✐♠✐r ◆❛❜♦❦♦✈✿ ▲♦❧✐t❛ ✭r❡❛❞✿ ✐♥str✉❝t✐♦♥ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ♦♥ ♣♦♦♣❡r✐♥❣ ❛ ❧♦❧✐✱ ✇r✐tt❡♥ ✐♥ ♣r♦s❡✮ • ●❡♦r❣❡ ❖r✇❡❧❧✿ ❆♥✐♠❛❧ ❋❛r♠✱ ✶✾✽✹ • ❏♦s❡♣❤ ❍❡❧❧❡r✿ ❈❛t❝❤✲✷✷ ✭r❡❛❞ t❤✐s ♦♥❡ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧❡ t✐♠❡s✱ ✐ts ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞✮ • ❙t❡♣❤❡♥ ❑✐♥❣✿ ❉♦❧♦r❡s ❈❧❛✐❜♦r♥ ✭❡①♣❧❛✐♥s ✇❤② ♠✉r❞❡r ✐s s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s t❤❡ ❜❡st ♦♣t✐♦♥✳✮ • ❑♦✉s❤✉♥ ❚❛❦❛♠✐✿ ❇❛tt❧❡ ❘♦②❛❧❡ ✭✉♥✉s✉❛❧ ❝♦♥❝❡♣t ✇♦rt❤ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❛t✮ • ❖s❝❛r ❲✐❧❞❡✿ ❚❤❡ P✐❝t✉r❡ ♦❢ ❉♦r✐❛♥ ●r❛② ✭❲✐❧❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐❜❡s t❤❡ t②♣✐❝❛❧ ✴❜✴t❛r❞ str✐❦✐♥❣❧② ✇❡❧❧✮ ✶✶ ❆♥❞ ❧❡❛r♥ t♦ ♣r♦♥♦✉♥❝❡ ❤✐s ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ♥❛♠❡✱ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❉♦ss✲t♦②✲❨❊❱✲s❦❡❡✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❢❡✇ t❤✐♥❣s t❤❛t ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ♠♦r❡ ♦❢ ❛ ♣r✐❝❦ t❤❛♥ t❛❧❦✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ✧❉✉st✉✈s❦♦②✧ ♦r ✧❉♦st✐✈s❦❛②✧ ♦r ✧❉❛st✐✬♠❛s❤✐t❢✉❝❦❡r✧ ♥♦✈❡❧ ②♦✉✬r❡ r❡❛❞✐♥❣✳ ✶✷ ❆♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❜② t❤✐s ❛✉t❤♦r ✐s r❛t❡❞ ✧✴❜✴t❛r❞ ♦♥❧②✧✱ ✇r✐tt❡♥ ♠♦st❧② ✐♥ t❤❡ ✶✼✵✵s✱ s♦♠❡ ♦❢ ❤✐s ✇♦r❦s ❛r❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ ❢✉❝❦❡❞ ✉♣ ❡✈❡♥ ❜② t♦❞❛②✬s st❛♥❞❛r❞s✳ ✸✾ ❋❛♥t❛s②✿ ◆♦t❡✿ ●❡tt✐♥❣ t♦♦ ❤❡❛✈② ✐♥t♦ r❡❛❞✐♥❣ ❢❛♥t❛s② ✐s ❛ q✉✐❝❦ ✇❛② t♦ t✉r♥ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ✐♥t♦ ❛ ♥❡❝❦❜❡❛r❞✲s♣♦rt✐♥❣ ❉✫❉ tr♦❧❧ ❝r❡❛t✉r❡✳ ❍❛✈✐♥❣ s❛✐❞ t❤✐s✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ r✐❞✐❝✉❧♦✉s ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ❡①tr❡♠❡❧② ❣r❡❛t ❢❛♥t❛s② ♥♦✈❡❧s ♦✉t t❤❡r❡✳ ❏✉st r❡♠❡♠❜❡r t♦ ❞✐✈❡rs✐❢②✱ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ • ❚❡rr② Pr❛t❝❤❡tt✿ ◆✐❣❤t ❲❛t❝❤✱ ❙♠❛❧❧ ●♦❞s✳✳✳✱ ♣r❡tt② ♠✉❝❤ t❤❡ ❡♥t✐r❡t② ♦❢ ❤✐s ❉✐s❝✇♦r❧❞ s❡r✐❡s✳ • ❏✳❘✳❘✳ ❚♦❧❦✐❡♥✿ ❇✐❣ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❣✉❡ss ✭❆❧s♦✿ ❚♦❧✲❑❊❊◆✱ ♥♦t ❚♦❧✲❑❊◆✮ • ❈❧✐✈❡ ❇❛r❦❡r✿ ❆❜❛r❛t ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡ ✜❝t✐♦♥✿ ❚❤❡ s❛♠❡ r✉❧❡s ❢♦r ❢❛♥t❛s② ❛♣♣❧② t♦ ❙❝✐✲❋✐❀ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ st✐❣♠❛ ❛❣❛✐♥st s♦♠❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♥❡r❞✐❡r ❜✐ts ✐♥ t❤✐s ❣❡♥r❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ st✐❝❦ ♦♥ t❤❡ ❝❧❛ss② s✐❞❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ ✐♥ ✜♥❡ s❤❛♣❡✳ • ❲✐❧❧✐❛♠ ●✐❜s♦♥✬s ❙♣r❛✇❧ ❚r✐♦❧♦❣②❀ ◆❡✉r♦♠❛♥❝❡r✱ ❈♦✉♥t ❩❡r♦ ❛♥❞ ▼♦♥❛ ▲✐s❛ ❖✈❡r❞r✐✈❡✳ ❇♦♥✉s ♣♦✐♥ts ❢♦r s❤♦rt st♦r✐❡s ❧✐❦❡ ❏♦❤♥♥② ▼♥❡♥♦♠✐❝✳ • ◆❡✐❧ ❙t❡♣❤❡♥s♦♥✿ ❙♥♦✇ ❈r❛s❤ ❛♥❞ ❚❤❡ ❉✐❛♠♦♥❞ ❆❣❡✳ • ❆❧❞♦✉s ❍✉①❧❡②✿ ❇r❛✈❡ ◆❡✇ ❲♦r❧❞✳ • ❋r❛♥❦ ❍❡r❜❡rt✬s ❉✉♥❡ s❡r✐❡s✳ • ❍✳●✳ ❲❡❧❧s✿ ❚❤❡ ❲❛r ♦❢ t❤❡ ❲♦r❧❞s✳ ❚❤❡ ♠♦✈✐❡ ✐s s✐♠✐❧❛r t♦ t❤❡ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧ ❜♦♦❦ ✐♥ ♦♥❧② t✇♦ t❤✐♥❣s✿ ❆■❉❙ ❛♥❞ ❊◆❖❯●❍ ❚❤❡ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧✱ ♥♦t t❤❡ ♦♥❡ ❜② ❤✐s s♦♥✳ ■ ❈❆◆◆❖❚ ❙❚❘❊❙❙ ❚❍■❙ ❤✉♠❛♥s ❜❡✐♥❣ s✉r♣r✐s❡ ❜✉tts❡❝❦s❡❞✱ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❡❧s❡ ✐s ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❆◆❉ ❜❡tt❡r ✐♥ t❤❡ ❜♦♦❦ • ❘♦❜❡rt ❆ ❍❡✐♥❧❡✐♥✿ ❙t❛rs❤✐♣ ❚r♦♦♣❡rs✳ ❋♦r❣❡t t❤❡ ❝r❛♣♣② ♠♦✈✐❡ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ♠❡♠❡✱ t❤✐s ❜♦♦❦ ❦✐❝❦s ❆❙❙ • ■s❛❛❝ ❆s✐♠♦✈✿ ■✱ ❘♦❜♦t✳ ❆❣❛✐♥✱ ❢♦r❣❡t t❤❡ ♠♦✈✐❡✱ ❲✐❧❧ ❙♠✐t❤ ♥❡❡❞s t♦ ❣❡t ❤✐s ❢r❡s❤ ❛ss ❜❛❝❦ t♦ ❇❡❧✲❆✐r ❛♥❞ r❡❢r❛✐♥ ❢r♦♠ r❛♣✐♥❣ ❣♦♦❞ ❜♦♦❦s • ✶✸ ❉♦✉❣❧❛s ❆❞❛♠s✿ ❍✐t❝❤ ❍✐❦❡r✬s ●✉✐❞❡ t♦ t❤❡ ●❛❧❛①② ❛♥❞ ❉✐r❦ ●❡♥t❧② ❜♦♦❦s ▲❡s❜✐❛♥ ❋✐❝t✐♦♥✿ • ◆❛♥❝② ●❛r❞❡♥✿ ❆♥♥✐❡ ❖♥ ▼② ▼✐♥❞ ❛♥❞ ●♦♦❞ ▼♦♦♥ ❘✐s✐♥❣✳ • ❙❛r❛❤ ❲❛t❡r✿ ❋✐♥❣❡rs♠✐t❤ ✭●r❛♥t❡❞✱ ❛❧s♦ ❛ ❱✐❝t♦r✐❛♥ ❝r✐♠❡ ♥♦✈❡❧✮ ●♦♥③♦ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧✐s♠✿ • ❍✉♥t❡r ❙✳ ❚❤♦♠♣s♦♥✿ ❋❡❛r ❛♥❞ ▲♦❛t❤✐♥❣ ✐♥ ▲❛s ❱❡❣❛s✳ ❲❛r❤❛♠♠❡r ✹✵❦✿ • ❉❛♥ ❆❜♥❡tt✬s ❍♦r✉s ❍❡r❡s② s❡r✐❡s✳ ✭❉✐s❝❧❛✐♠❡r✿ ❚❤✐s ❲■▲▲ ◆❖❚ ❡❛r♥ ②♦✉ ♠✉❝❤ r❡s♣❡❝t ✇✐t❤ ♠♦st ♣❡♦♣❧❡✱ ❜✉t ❢✉❝❦ ✐t✳ ■t✬s ❛ ❣r❡❛t r❡❛❞✳✮ ❋✉♥ ❙t✉✛ • ▼❛① ❇r♦♦❦s✿ ❚❤❡ ❩♦♠❜✐❡ ❙✉r✈✐✈❛❧ ●✉✐❞❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❲♦r❧❞ ❲❛r ❩✿ ❆♥ ♦r❛❧ ❤✐st♦r② ♦❢ t❤❡ ③♦♠❜✐❡ ✇❛r ✶✸ ❨♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ r❡❛❞ t❤❡ ❉✐r❦ ●❡♥t❧② ❜♦♦❦ ❛ ❝♦✉♣❧❡ ♦❢ t✐♠❡s t♦ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② ❣❡t ✐t ❛❧❧ ❛s ✐t ❝♦t♥❛✐♥s ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ♥✐❝❡ ❞❡t❛✐❧s t❤❛t ❝♦♠❡ ♦✉t ♦♥ s✉❝❝❡ss✐✈❡ r❡❛❞✐♥❣s ✹✵ ✽ ❉r❛✇✐♥❣ ■♥tr♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ❙♦✱ ❆♥✐♠✉ ❤❛s ✜♥❛❧❧② s♦❧❞ ②♦✉ t❤❡ ❞r❡❛♠ ♦❢ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ s❤✐t ♦✉t q✉❛❧✐t② ❛rt✇♦r❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❢❛t ♠❛♥ ♦♥ ❧❛①❛t✐✈❡s❄ ❲❡❧❧✱ t♦✉❣❤ s❤✐t✳ ❨♦✉✬r❡ ♥♦t ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❜❡ ❛ ❢❛♠♦✉s ♠❛♥❣❛❦❛ t❤❛t ♠❛❦❡s ❛ ♦♥❡ ❤✐t ✇♦♥❞❡r ❛♥❞ s♣❡♥❞s t❤❡ r❡st ♦❢ ❤✐s ❞❛②s ❤✐tt✐♥❣ ❥❛✐❧❜❛✐t ✐♥ ❲❡st❡r♥ ❏❛♣❛♥✳ ❨♦✉✬r❡ ♥♦t ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ❛ ♣r♦✜t❛❜❧❡ ❝❛r❡❡r ♦✉t ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❧✐❦❡ ✭✐♠♠❡♥s❡ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❤❛❝❦✮ ❚✐♠ ❇✉❝❦❧❡②✳ ❨♦✉r ❞r❛✇✐♥❣s ❛r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❜❡ ✉tt❡r s❤✐t✳ ❨♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ r✐♣ ❛♣❛rt ②♦✉r ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ♣❛❞s✱ s♥❛♣ ♦✈❡r ✾✵✵✵ ♠❡❝❤❛♥✐❝❛❧ ♣❡♥❝✐❧s ❛♥❞ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ✉♥❧✐❦❡❧② t❤❛t ❛t s♦♠❡ ♣♦✐♥t✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❧♦s❡ ②♦✉r ♠✐♥❞ ❛♥❞ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❛♥ ❤❡r♦✳ ❙♦ ✇❤❛t✱ ■ ❤❛✈❡ ♥♦ ❤♦♣❡ ❛t ❛❧❧❄ ❖❤✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ❤♦♣❡ ❜✉t ②♦✉ ✜rst ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ t❤❛t ②♦✉ s✉❝❦✳ ❖✈❡r t✐♠❡✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❣❡t ❜❡tt❡r✳ ▼✉❝❤ ❧✐❦❡ ❞✐❡t✐♥❣✱ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡♠❡♥ts t♦ ②♦✉r ❛rt✇♦r❦ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ s♠❛❧❧ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ✇♦♥t ♥♦t✐❝❡ t❤❡♠ r✐❣❤t ❛✇❛②✳ ■t✬❧❧ t❛❦❡ ❛ ❧♦♥❣ t✐♠❡ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ♣r♦❞✉❝❡ ❢❛♣❛❜❧❡ ❛rt✇♦r❦✳ ❋✉❝❦ t❤✐s s❤✐t✱ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ✇♦rt❤ ✐t✦ ❇❡✐♥❣ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ❞r❛✇ ✐s ❙❖ ✇♦rt❤ ✐t✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❜❡ ❤✐tt✐♥❣ ②♦✉rs❡❧❢ ❢♦r ❡✈❡♥ t❤✐♥❦✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t q✉✐t✐♥❣ ♦♥❝❡ ②♦✉ ❣❡t ❣♦♦❞✳ ◆♦t ♦♥❧② ❞♦❡s ✐t ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t♦ ❞♦ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❣♦t t✐♠❡ t♦ ❦✐❧❧ ❜✉t ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❛❧s♦ ❜❡ ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ✐♠♣r❡ss ❢❡❧❧♦✇ ✴❜✴t❛r❞s ❛♥❞ ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ ●❋✬s✳ ❲♦♠❡♥ ❧♦✈❡ ❛rt✱ t❤♦✉❣❤ ✐t ♠✐❣❤t ❜❡ ❛❞✈✐s❛❜❧❡ t♦ t♦♥❡ ❞♦✇♥ t❤❡ ✧❡♥❞♦✇♠❡♥t✧ s♦ ❛s ♥♦t t♦ ♣r♦✈♦❦❡ ❛♥ ✉♥❢❛✈♦r❛❜❧❡ r❡❛❝t✐♦♥✳ ✽✳✶ ●❡tt✐♥❣ st❛rt❡❞ ◆♦✇ t❤❛t ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❝♦♠❡ t♦ t❡r♠s ✇✐t❤ t❤✐s ♠❛s♦❝❤✐st✐❝ ❤♦❜❜②✱ ✐t✬s t✐♠❡ t♦ ❣❡t ❝r❛❝❦✐♥❣✳ ❋✐rst ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ♥❡❡❞ s♦♠❡ s✉♣♣❧✐❡s✳ ◆♦t ❛❧❧ ♣❛♣❡r ✐s ❡q✉❛❧✱ ❜✉t ❢♦r ♥♦✇ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ ♦❦ ✇✐t❤ ♣r✐♥t❡r✲❣r❛❞❡ ♦r ♣❛♣❡r ❛r❦s✱ ❛❦❛ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ♣❛❞s✳ ❆ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ♣❛❞✱ s♦♠❡ ❝❤❛r❝♦❛❧ ❛♥❞ s♦♠❡ ❣r❛♣❤✐t❡ ✇✐❧❧ r✉♥ ②♦✉ ❛❜♦✉t s❡✈❡♥ ❜✉❝❦s✳ ▼❡❝❤❛♥✐❝❛❧ ♦r ♥♦♥✲♠❡❝❤❛♥✐❝❛❧ ♣❡♥❝✐❧s ❡❛❝❤ ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡✐r ✉♣s ❛♥❞ ❞♦✇♥s ❜✉t ✐t ❜❛s✐❝❛❧❧② ❜♦✐❧s ❞♦✇♥ t♦ t❤✐s✿ ▼❡✲ ❝❤❛♥✐❝❛❧s ❛r❡ ❡❛s✐❡r t♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧✱ ❜✉t ♥♦♥✲♠❡❝❤❛♥✐❝❛❧s ✇♦♥t ❜r❡❛❦ ❛♥❞ ❢❡❡❧ ♠♦r❡ ♥❛t✉r❛❧✳ P✐❝❦ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❡✈❡r ②♦✉ ❧✐❦❡ ❜❡tt❡r✳ ❚❤❡ ✉s❡❢✉❧♥❡ss ♦❢ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❜♦♦❦s ✐s t♦ s❛② t❤❡ ❧❡❛st✱ ❤✐❣❤❧② ❞❡❜❛t❛❜❧❡✳ ❆ ❧♦t ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ ❜♦♦❦s✱ ❊❙P❊❈■❆▲▲❨ t❤❡ ♦♥❡s ❢♦❝✉s✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❆♥✐♠✉✱ ❛r❡ s❤✐t✳ ❆✈♦✐❞ t❤❡♠ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❤♦r♥② ❋❇■ ❛❣❡♥t✳ ❚❤❡ ♦♥❧② ♦♥❡ t❤✐s ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ❝❛♥ tr✉❧② r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞ ✐s ▲♦♦♠✐s✬s ❣✉✐❞❡ t♦ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣✳ ■ ❞♦♥✬t ❝❛r❡ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ♥♦t ✐♥t♦ ❤✐s st②❧❡✱ t❤❛t t❤✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ t❡❛❝❤ ②♦✉ ✈❛❧✉❛❜❧❡ s❦✐❧❧s✳ ❆ q✉✐❝❦ ♥♦t❡ ❛❜♦✉t ❲❛❝♦♠✬s ❆ ❲❛❝♦♠ ✐s ❛ ❞✐❣✐t✐③❡r t❛❜❧❡t t❤❛t ❛❧❧♦✇s ②♦✉ t♦ ❞r❛✇ str❛✐❣❤t ✐♥t♦ ②♦✉r ❝♦♠♣✉t❡r ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ s❝❛♥♥✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ t❤❡♥ tr❛❝✐♥❣ ✐t ✇✐t❤ P❤♦t♦s❤♦♣ ♦r t❤❡ ●✐♠♣✳ ❚❤❡ ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣ ✐s ♠②t❤✐❝❛❧✲❣r❛❞❡ tr✉t❤ ❛♥❞ ✐s ♥❡✈❡r t♦ ❜❡ q✉❡st✐♦♥❡❞✿ ◆❖ ❚❆❇▲❊❚✱ ◆❖ ▼❆❚❚❊❘ ❍❖❲ ❋❯❈❑■◆● ❊❳P❊◆❙■❱❊✱ ❲■▲▲ ❊❱❊❘ ■▼P❘❖❱❊ ❨❖❯❘ ❆❇■▲■❚❨✳ ■❢ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣✱ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❤❛r❞❡r t✐♠❡ ✉s✐♥❣ ❛ t❛❜❧❡t✱ s✐♥❝❡ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❝❛❧✐❜r❛t❡ t❤❡ ♣❡♥ t♦ ❣❡t ❛ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t ❧✐♥❡ t❤❛t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ❢r♦♠ ✶✷✲✶✷✵♣ts ❡✈❡r② t❤✐rt② ♣✐①❡❧s✳ ❯♥t✐❧ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❣♦t s♦♠❡ s❦✐❧❧✱ ❞♦♥✬t ❡✈❡♥ t❤✐♥❦ ❛❜♦✉t ❜✉②✐♥❣ ❛ t❛❜❧❡t✳ ❙❛♠❡ ❢♦r ♣❡♥✲♠✐❝❡✱ t❤❡② s✉❝❦✱ ❜❛r❡❧② ✉s❛❜❧❡ ❢♦r r❡❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ♦✈❡r ♠❛♥❣❛ ❡❞✐ts✳ ❲❤❛t ❛ t❛❜❧❡t ✇✐❧❧ ❡♥❛❜❧❡ ②♦✉ t♦ ❞♦✱ ✐s ❥✉st t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ❝❧❡❛♥ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣s str❛✐❣❤t ♦✉t✱ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♠♦❞✐❢② t❤❡ ♣✐❝t✉r❡ ❛s ♠✉❝❤ ❛s ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t✳ ❇✉t ✐t ✇✐❧❧ ✐♥ ♥♦ ✇❛② ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ✧❜❡tt❡r✧ ❛t ❞r❛✇✐♥❣✳ ❨♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❜❡tt❡r ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♠❛❦❡ ❛ r❡❧❛t✐✈❡❧② ❝❧❡❛♥ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣✱ t❤❡♥ s❝❛♥ ❛♥❞ ♠♦❞✐❢② ✐t✳ ❯s✐♥❣ ❛ t❛❜❧❡t ❧✐❦❡ t❤❛t ✇✐❧❧ ❥✉st r❡♠♦✈❡ t❤❡ ❤❛r❞s❤✐♣s ♦❢ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ❛ ♣r♦♣❡r ❞r❛✇✐♥❣✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♠❡❛♥s ❛❧❧ t❤❡ ❞r❛✇❜❛❝❦s ✭♥♦ ♣✉♥ ✐♥t❡♥❞❡❞✮ ❛♥❞ s♦ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ♥♦t ❣❡t t♦ ❧❡❛r♥ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❞♦ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❜② ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✱ ❛♥❞ ♦♥❝❡ ②♦✉✬r❡ ♦✉t ✇✐t❤ ♦♥❧② ❛ ♣❡♥ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❤❛♥❞ ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ st✉❝❦✳ ✽✳✷ ❆❝t✉❛❧❧② ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❚❤❡ ❜❡st ✇❛② t♦ st❛rt ✐s ❜② ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ♦❜❥❡❝ts ✐♥ ②♦✉r ✐♠♠❡❞✐❛t❡ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t✳ ❆♥② ♦❜❥❡❝t ❝❛♥ ❜❡ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❡❞ ✐♥t♦ ❜❛s✐❝ s❤❛♣❡s✿ sq✉❛r❡s✱ ❝✐r❝❧❡s✱ ♦✈❛❧s ❛♥❞ tr✐❛♥❣❧❡s✳ Pr❛❝t✐❝❡ t❤✐s ❛♥❞ ✐t✬❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ r❡❛❧✐st✐❝ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❛ ❤❡❧❧ ♦❢ ❛ ❧♦t ❡❛s✐❡r✳ ■♥✈❡st✐♥❣ ✐♥ s♦♠❡ ❜❛s✐❝ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❝♦✉rs❡s ❛t ❛♥ ❛rt s❝❤♦♦❧ ♦r s♦♠❡ s✉❝❤ ✇✐❧❧ ♠♦r❡ ♦❢t❡♥ t❤❛♥ ♥♦t ♣❛② ♦❢ ♠❛ss✐✈❡❧②✳ ■t ♠✐❣❤t ❛❧s♦ ♣❛② ♦✛ t♦ tr❛❝❡ ✐♠❛❣❡s✳ ❨❡s✱ ■ s❛✐❞ ✐t✱ tr❛❝✐♥❣✳ ■t✬s ❞✐rt②✱ ❝❤❡❛♣ ❛♥❞ ❧♦♦❦❡❞ ❞♦✇♥ ✉♣♦♥ ❜② ❡✈❡r②♦♥❡ ✇♦rt❤ t❤❡ ❧❡❛❞ ✐♥ ❤✐s ♣❡♥❝✐❧✳ ❲❤✐❝❤ ✐s ✇❤② ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❣♦ ❛r♦✉♥❞ ♣✉tt✐♥❣ ②♦✉r tr❛❝❡❞ s❤✐t ♦♥ t❤❡ ♥❡t✱ ②♦✉ ❛ss❤♦❧❡✳ ❚r❛❝❡ ✐t✱ ❧❡❛r♥ ❢r♦♠ ✐t✱ t❤❡♥ ❇❯❘◆ ✐t✳ ✹✶ ❆♥♦t❤❡r ♣♦✐♥t ♦❢ ✈✐❡✇✿ ❲❤✐❧❡ tr❛❝✐♥❣ ♠✐❣❤t ❞♦ t❤❡ tr✐❝❦✱ ❝♦♣②✐♥❣ ♦t❤❡r ✇♦r❦s ❛s ❛❝❝✉r❛t❡❧② ✇✐t❤♦✉t ✉s✐♥❣ ❛♥② ❤❛♥❞✐❝❛♣s ✐s ♠♦st ❧✐❦❡❧② t♦ ♣❛② ♦✛ ♠♦r❡ ♦♥❝❡ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❣r❛s♣❡❞ t❤❡ ❜❛s✐❝s✳ ❚❤❡ ♦❞❞s ❛r❡ t❤❛t ②♦✉r ❝♦♣✐❡❞ st✉✛ ✇✐❧❧ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ s❤✐t ❛♥❞ ✐t✬s ♥♦t ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ❡❛s✐❧② ✲ t❤✐s r❡q✉✐r❡s ♣❛t✐❡♥❝❡ ❛♥❞ t✐♠❡ ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣✳ ❏✉st ❝♦♣②✱ ❝♦♣② ❛♥❞ ❝♦♣② s♦♠❡ ♠♦r❡ st✉✛✳ ❚❤❡ s❛♠❡ r✉❧❡ ❛♣♣❧✐❡s ❛s ✐t ❞♦❡s ✐♥ tr❛❝✐♥❣ ✲ ♥❡✈❡r ♣✉t ②♦✉r ❝♦♣✐❡❞ s❤✐t ♦♥ t❤❡ ♥❡t✳ ❈♦♣② ✐t✱ ❧❡❛r♥ ❢r♦♠ ✐t✱ ❜✉r♥ ✐t✱ st❛rt ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ❜❡❣✐♥♥✐♥❣✳ ❋♦r t❤♦s❡ ✇❤♦ ❛r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❞r❛✇ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ✲ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♠♦st ♦❢ ✉s ❛r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ❞♦ s♦♦♥❡r ♦r ❧❛t❡r ❛♥②✇❛② ✲ ❧❡❛r♥ ♣❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❡ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣✳ ■t✬s ♥♦t ❛❧❧ t❤❛t ❞✐✣❝✉❧t✱ ❜✉t ✐t✬s ❛ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ♠✉st ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❝r❡❛t❡ r❡❛❧✐st✐❝ ❧♦♦❦✐♥❣ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ✇❤❡r❡ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ✐s ✐♥ ♣r♦♣♦rt✐♦♥✳ ✽✳✸ ❙❝❛♥♥✐♥❣ ❆❢t❡r t♦✐❧✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❤♦✉rs ✉♣♦♥ ❤♦✉rs✱ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ✜♥❛❧❧② ❣♦t s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ s❤♦✇ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞✳ ❖❢ ❝♦✉rs❡✱ t❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞ ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❣✐✈❡ ❛ s❤✐t ❛♥❞ ✇♦✉❧❞ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ♣✉t ❛ ❈✉❜❛♥ ❝✐❣❛r ♦✉t ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❡②❡ ✐❢ ✐t ❤❛❞ t❤❡ ❝❤❛♥❝❡✱ ✐❢ ♦♥❧② t♦ ❡♥s✉r❡ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❣❡t ❛♥② ✐❞❡❛s t❤❛t ❛ss✉♠❡ ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡✳ ❋✐rst ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ❛ s❝❛♥♥❡r✳ ❙✐♠♣❧❡ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ t♦ ❛❝q✉✐r❡✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♣✐❝❦ ♦♥ ✉♣ ✐♥ ❛♥② ❣♦♦❞ ❝♦♠♣✉t❡r ♦r ♦✣❝❡ st♦r❡✳ ❚❤❡ ♦♥❧② t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞ ✐s t❤❛t ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ♥❡❡❞ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ❝❛♥ ❞♦ ✸✵✵❞♣✐ ✭❚❤❛t✬s ❉♦ts✲ ♣❡r✲✐♥❝❤✮✳ ▼♦r❡ ✐s ❜❡tt❡r✱ ❜② t❤❡ ✇❛②✳ ❆♥② ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ②♦✉ s❝❛♥ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❆❚ ▲❊❆❙❚ ✷✺✵✵①✷✺✵✵✰✳ ❚❤✐s ✇❛②✱ ❛❢t❡r ②♦✉✬✈❡ tr❛❝❡❞ ②♦✉r ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧ ❧✐♥❡s✱ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ❝r✐s♣ ❛♥❞ ❝❧❡❛♥ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ s❝❛❧❡ ✐t ❞♦✇♥ t♦ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ✇♦♥t ❢r② ②♦✉r r❡t✐♥❛ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛t❝❤ ❢♦r ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ✶✵ s❡❝♦♥❞s✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❞♦♥❡ s❝❛♥♥✐♥❣✱ ②♦✉ ✇✐❧❧ ❤❛✈❡ t♦ r❡♠♦✈❡ t❤❡ ✧❞✐rt✧ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❜② ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ✉s❡ ♦❢ ❧❡✈❡❧s✱ ✭❈tr❧✰▲ ❢♦r P❙✱ ❚♦♦❧s✲❃❈♦❧♦r ❚♦♦❧s✲❃▲❡✈❡❧s ❢♦r ●✐♠♣✮✱ t❤✐s ✇✐❧❧ ❡♥❛❜❧❡ ②♦✉ t♦ s❡❧❡❝t t❤❡ t❤r❡s❤♦❧❞ ♦❢ ✇❤❛t ✐s ✇❤✐t❡✱ ❛♥❞ ✇❤❛t ✐s ❜❧❛❝❦✱ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ✐s ✇❤✐t❡r❬❜❧❛❝❦❡r❪ ♦♥ t❤❡ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧ ✐♠❛❣❡ ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ✇❤✐t❡❬❜❧❛❝❦❪✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♠❡❛♥s ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❝❤♦♦s❡ ❛ ❧✐❣❤t ❣r❛② t♦ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ✇❤✐t❡✱ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❧✐❣❤t❡r ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ✇❤✐t❡✳ ❖♥❝❡ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❧❡✈❡❧❡❞ t❤❡ ♣✐❝t✉r❡✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ r❡♠♦✈❡ t❤❡ s♠✉❞❣❡s ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❡r❛s❡r✱ ❝❧❡❛♥ ✉♣ t❤❡ ❡❞❣❡s✱ s❤❛r♣❡♥ t❤❡♠ ♦r ❛♥② s♣♦t ②♦✉ ✜♥❞ ❜❧✉rr② ♦r ❛❞❞ s♦♠❡ ❜❧✉r ✇❤❡r❡ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t ❛ ♠♦r❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s ✜❧❧✐♥❣✳ ❨♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛❧s♦ ❝r♦♣ ❛♥❞ r♦t❛t❡ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ❛♥❣❧❡ ②♦✉ ❞❡s✐r❡✳ ❛♥❞ ✉s❡ t❤❡ ❞♦❞❣❡✴❜✉r♥ t♦♦❧s t♦ ❝♦rr❡❝t s❤❛❞❡s✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❞♦♥❡ ❝❧❡❛♥✐♥❣ ✉♣✱ ❛♥❞ ■ ♠❡❛♥ ✐t✱ ❝❧❡❛♥✐♥❣ ✐s ❤❛❧❢ t❤❡ ✇♦r❦✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ t❤✐♥❦ ❛❜♦✉t ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ❜❡tt❡r ♦r ❝♦❧♦r✐♥❣ ✐t✳ ●✐♠♣ t✉t♦r✐❛❧ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❣✐♠♣✳♦r❣✴t✉t♦r✐❛❧s✴ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳t✉t♦r✐❛❧✐③❡❞✳❝♦♠✴t✉t♦r✐❛❧s✴P❤♦t♦s❤♦♣✴✶ P❤♦t♦s❤♦♣ t✉t♦r✐❛❧s ✽✳✹ ■♥❦✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❝♦❧♦r✐♥❣ ❙✇❡❡t ▲♦♥❣❝❛t✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ s♦ ♠❛♥② ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ✇❛② t♦ ❝♦❧♦r ❛ ♣✐❝t✉r❡✱ t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ✇❛②s ❝❛♥ ♦♥❧② ❝♦♠♣❛r❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ✐♥❝❡st✉♦✉s s✐❜❧✐♥❣s ✐♥ t❤❡ s♦✉t❤❡r♥ ❯♥✐t❡❞ ❙t❛t❡s✳ ❚♦ s❛✈❡ t❤✐s ❛rt✐❝❧❡ t♦ ❢r♦♠ ❜❡❝♦♠✐♥❣ ✾✵✵✵ ♣❛❣❡s ❧♦♥❣✱ ✇❡✬❧❧ ❥✉st ♣♦st ❧✐♥❦s t♦ s♦♠❡ t✉t♦r✐❛❧s ❞❡♣✐❝t✐♥❣ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❝♦❧♦r ❛♥❞ ✐♥❦✳ ■ ✇✐❧❧ ❤♦✇❡✈❡r ❣✐✈❡ ②♦✉ t❤✐s ❤❛♥❞② ♣r♦t✐♣✿ ❆❜✉s❡ ❧❛②❡rs ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ❝❛t❤♦❧✐❝ ❛❧t❛r ❜♦②✳ ❲❛t❡r♠❛r❦✐♥❣ ◆♦✱ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ♥❡❡❞ ✐t ②❡t✳ ❙♦ ❞♦♥✬t✳ ❆ r❡♣✉❜❧✐❝❛♥✲r❡❞✲t❛♣❡ st❛♠♣ ❛❝r♦ss ②♦✉r ❞r❛✇✐♥❣ ♦♥❧② s❡r✈❡s t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ✐t ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ s❤✐tt②✳ ◆♦t t❤❛t ✐t ♥❡❡❞ t❤❡ ❤❡❧♣✱ ❜② t❤❡ ✇❛②✳ ❙♦✱ ♥♦✇ ✇❤❛t❄ ❘✐♥s❡ ❛♥❞ r❡♣❡❛t✱ ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s✳ ❖♥❝❡ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❞♦♥❡ t❤❛t✱ ❉❖ ■❚ ❆●❆■◆✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❣♦tt❡♥ ❛ ❧✐tt❧❡ ❜❡tt❡r✱ ❜r❡❛❦ ♦✉t t❤❡ ❥♣❣s ✶✹ ✳ ✶✹ ❋❛✐❧✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t q✉❛❧✐t② ✇♦r❦✱ ✉s❡ ❛ ❧♦ss❧❡ss ✜❧❡t②♣❡✱ t❤❡ s✐♠♣❧❡st ♦❢ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ♣♥❣✱ ✐t ❝❛♥ ❛❧s♦ ❤❛♥❞❧❡ tr❛♥s♣❛r❡♥❝②✱ s♦ ✐t✬s ♣❡r❢❡❝t ❢♦r ❡♠❜❡❞❞❡❞ ♣✐❝t✉r❡s❀ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛❧s♦ ❣❡t s♦♠❡ ❝♦♥str✉❝t✐✈❡ ❝r✐t✐❝✐s♠ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ■t s♦✉♥❞s s✐♠♣❧❡✱ ❜✉t ❣❡tt✐♥❣ ❧❛✐❞ ♦✈❡r t❤❡ ✐♥t❡r♥❡t ✐s ❡❛s✐❡r t❤❛♥ ❣❡tt✐♥❣ t❤✐rt② ✇♦r❞s ♦❢ ✇♦rt❤✇❤✐❧❡ ❝r✐t✐❝✐s♠✳ ❆♥❞ ❨❡s✱ st❛② t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦ ❛✇❛② ❢r♦♠ ❉❡✈✐❛♥t❆rt✱ ❙❤❡③②❆rt✱ ❙t♦r♠❆rt✐sts✱ ❱❈▲ ✭■❢ ②♦✉ ❦♥♦✇ ✇❤❛t t❤✐s ✐s✱ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❜❡②♦♥❞ r❡❞❡♠♣t✐♦♥ ❛♥②✇❛②✮ ❛♥❞ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤✐s ✈❡✐♥✳ ✹✷ ✾ ❈♦♦❦✐♥❣ ▲✐❦❡ ♠♦st ❆♥♦♥②♠✐✐✱ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❜❡❡♥ ❧✐✈✐♥❣ ♦♥ ▼✐❝r♦✇❛✈❡ ❢♦♦❞✱ t❛❦❡✲❛✲✇❛② ❛♥❞ ♣✐③③❛ ❢♦r t❤❡ ♠❛❥♦r✐t② ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❧✐❢❡✳ ❲❡❧❧✱ t❤❡ t✐♠❡ ❤❛s ❝♦♠❡ ❢♦r ②♦✉ t♦ ❧❡❛r♥ ❤♦✇ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ♣r♦♣❡r ❢♦♦❞ ❛♥❞ ♣r❡❢❡r❛❜❧② t❤❡ ❦✐♥❞ t❤❛t ✇♦♥✬t ❝❧♦❣ ✉♣ ②♦✉r ❛rt❡r✐❡s t✐❣❤t❡r t❤❛♥ t❤❡ s♣❤✐❝❤t❡r ♦❢ ❛ ✈✐♦❧❛t❡❞ ❝❛t❤♦❧✐❝ s❝❤♦♦❧ ❣✐r❧✳ ✾✳✶ ❲❤❛t ②♦✉ ♥❡❡❞ ❲❤❡t❤❡r ②♦✉✬r❡ ❧✐✈✐♥❣ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ♦✇♥ ♦r st✐❧❧ ❧✐✈✐♥❣ ♦✉t ♦❢ ②♦✉r ♣❛r❡♥ts ❜❛s❡♠❡♥t✱ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ♥❡❡❞ s♦♠❡✇❤❡r❡ t♦ ♣r❡♣❛r❡ ②♦✉r ❢♦♦❞✱ ❛♥❞ ✉♥❧❡ss ②♦✉✬r❡ ❧✐✈✐♥❣ ✐♥ ❏❛♣❛♥✱ ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡ ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ ❛♣❛rt♠❡♥t ❧❡❛✈❡s ❧❡ss t❤❛♥ t✇♦ ♠❡t❡rs ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ t❤❡ t♦✐❧❡t✱ t❤❡ ❦✐t❝❤❡♥ ❛♥❞ ②♦✉r ❜❡❞✱ ②♦✉ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ❤❛✈❡ r❡❛❞② ❛❝❝❡ss t♦ ❛ ♣r♦♣❡r ❦✐t❝❤❡♥✳ ❊①❝❡❧❧❡♥t ❝♦♦❦✐♥❣ s❦✐❧❧s ❛r❡ ❤❛♥❞② ❛t ❛ttr❛❝t✐♥❣ ✇♦♠❡♥✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡♠ ❢♦♦❞ ✐s ❛ ✈❡r② r♦♠❛♥t✐❝ ❣❡st✉r❡✳ ❨♦✉r ❦✐t❝❤❡♥ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❛t t❤❡ ✈❡r② ❧❡❛st ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣✿ • ❆ st♦✈❡✳ • ❖♥❡ s❤❛❧❧♦✇ ♣♦t ❛♥❞ ♦♥❡ ❞❡❡♣✳ • ❖♥❡ ♣❛♥✳ • ❖♥❡ ❝✉tt✐♥❣ ❜❧♦❝❦✱ s♦ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❝❛r✈❡ ✉♣ ②♦✉r ❝♦✉♥t❡rs✳ • ❖♥❡ ❧♦♥❣ ❦♥✐❢❡ ❢♦r ❝✉tt✐♥❣ ♠❡❛t✳ • ❆ s♣❛t✉❧❛✱ ❢♦r ✢✐♣♣✐♥❣ ❜✉r❣❡rs✱ ❡❣❣s ❛♥❞ s✉❝❤✳ • ❆ ❢r✐❞❣❡✱ ❢♦r ♦❜✈✐♦✉s r❡❛s♦♥s✳ • ❆♥ ♦✈❡♥✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡♥✬t s❤✐t✲❜r♦❦❡✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛❧s♦ s♣❧❛s❤ ♦✉t ♦♥ s♦♠❡ ❧❡ss✲t❤❛♥✲❡ss❡♥t✐❛❧ ❜✉t st✐❧❧ q✉✐t❡ ✉s❡❢✉❧ ✐t❡♠s✱ s✉❝❤ ❛s✿ • ❆ ❜❧❡♥❞❡r✳ • ❆ t♦❛st❡r ✭②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② s✉❜st✐t✉t❡ ❢♦r t❤✐s ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ♣❛♥✱ ✐❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ str❛♣♣❡❞ ❢♦r ❝❛s❤✮ • ❆ s❛♥❞✇✐❝❤ ❣r✐❧❧ • ❈♦✛❡❡ ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡ • ●❡♦r❣❡ ❋♦r❡♠❛♥ ●r✐❧❧ • ❘✐❝❡ ❈♦♦❦❡r ✭❢♦r ②♦✉ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ✇❡❡❛❜♦♦s ❛♥❞ r❡❛❧ ❆s✐❛♥ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✮ ❍❡r❡ ❛r❡ s♦♠❡ ✐♥❣r❡❞✐❡♥ts t❤❛t ♠♦st ❢♦♦❞s ✇✐❧❧ r❡q✉✐r❡✱ ②♦✉ s❡r✐♦✉s❧② ◆❊❊❉ t❤❡s❡ • ❙❛❧t✱ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ❢♦♦❞s s❛❧t② • ❙✉❣❛r✱ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ❢♦♦❞s s✇❡❡t✱ ✭r❡♣❧❛❝❡ ✇✐t❤ s♣❧❡♥❞❛ ✐❢ ②♦✉r ❣✐r❧ ✐s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❤❛r♣♦♦♥s ♣❡rs✉❛s✐♦♥✱ ❛❧s♦ ✉s❡❢✉❧ ❢♦r ❤✐❞✐♥❣ ❝♦❦❡✮ • ❇❧❛❝❦ ❛♥❞ ❲❤✐t❡ P❡♣♣❡r✱ t❤❡② t❛st❡ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t✱ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t✳ • ❖✐❧✱ ②♦✉ ✉❤❤ ♣✉t ✐t ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣❛♥ ❛♥❞ st✉✛ s♦ ②♦✉r s❤✐t ✇♦♥t st✐❝❦ t♦ ②♦✉r ♣❛♥✱ ❛❧s♦ ❛❞❞s ✢❛✈♦r ♦❢ ✐ts ♦✇♥ • ❱✐♥❡❣❛r✱ ✉s❡❢✉❧ ✐♥ s❛❧❛❞s ❛♥❞ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ♥❡❡❞s ❛ ❤✐♥t ♦❢ s♦✉r✱ ❛❧s♦ ♣r♦❞✉❝❡s ❛ ❞❡❧✐❝✐♦✉s ❛r♦♠❛ ✇❤❡♥ ❛❞❞✐♥❣ ✇❤✐❧❡ ❝♦♦❦✐♥❣ ♠❡❛t ✇✐t❤ ✇✐♥❡✱ ✭❝❛r❜♦①②❧✐❝ ❛❝✐❞ r❡❛❝ts ✇✐t❤ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ t♦ ❝r❡❛t❡ ❡st❡rs✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛r❡ s✇❡❡t ❛♥❞ ❞❡❧✐❝✐♦✉s s♠❡❧❧✐♥❣ ♦r❣❛♥✐❝ ❝♦♠♣♦✉♥❞s✮ • ❱❛r✐♦✉s ❝♦♥❞✐♠❡♥ts✱ ❦❡t❝❤✉♣✱ ♠✉st❛r❞✱ ❡t❝❡t❝ • ❱❛r✐♦✉s s♣✐❝❡s✱ ❝✉♠✐♥✱ ♦r❡❣❛♥♦✱ ❡t❝✳✳✳✱ ❧♦♦❦ ✐t ✉♣ s♦♠❡✇❤❡r❡✳ ❚❤❡② ❛r❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧❧② ♥♦t t❤❛t ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ ✇✐❧❧ ❧❛st ②♦✉ ❛ ❧♦♥❣ t✐♠❡✳ ✹✸ ❲❤② ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❧❡❛r♥ t♦ ❝♦♦❦ ❈♦♦❦✐♥❣ ✐s s❡①②✳ ◆♦ ✇♦♠❛♥✱ ❜❡ s❤❡ ❧❛r❣❡✱ t❛❧❧✱ s❤♦rt✱ s♠❛❧❧✱ t✐❣❤t ♦r ❧♦♦s❡ ❝❛♥ r❡s✐st ❜r❡❛❦❢❛st ✐♥ ❜❡❞ ❛❢t❡r ❛ ♥✐❣❤t ♦❢ ✇❤❛t ✇❛s ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ♣✐t✐❢✉❧❧② s❤♦rt ✭P✉♥ str✐❦❡s ②♦✉ ❢♦r ♠❛ss✐✈❡ ❞❛♠❛❣❡✮ s❡①✳ ■t ❝❛♥ ❛♥❞ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ✇✐❧❧ ❛t s♦♠❡ ♣♦✐♥t s❛✈❡ ②♦✉r r❡❧❛t✐♦♥s❤✐♣✳ ◆♦t ♦♥❧② t❤❛t✱ ❜✉t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ♦♥❧② s✉r✈✐✈❡ ♦♥ ✐♥st❛♥t ♥♦♦❞❧❡s ❢♦r s♦ ❧♦♥❣ ❜❡❢♦r❡ ②♦✉r ❛r♠s st❛rt ❡❛t✐♥❣ t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s ♦✉t ♦❢ ♠❛❧♥✉tr✐t✐♦♥✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ✇❛♥t t♦ ❜r❡❛❦ ♦✉t ❛ s✇❡❛t ❡✈❡r② t✐♠❡ ②♦✉ ♣✐❝❦ ✉♣ ❛ ❜♦♦❦ ✭❛♥ ✉♥❧✐❦❡❧② ❡✈❡♥t✱ ■ ❦♥♦✇✮✱ ②♦✉ ✇♦✉❧❞ ❞♦ ✇❡❧❧ t♦ ❧✐st❡♥✳ ✾✳✷ ●❡tt✐♥❣ t♦ ✐t✿ Pr♦t✐♣s ❈♦♦❦✐♥❣ ✐s ❢✉♥✱ ✐♥ t❤❡ s❡♥s❡ t❤❛t t❤❡ r✉❧❡s ❛r❡ ✈❡r② ❜❛s✐❝✱ ❛♥❞ ❡✈❡r②t❤✐♥❣ ❡❧s❡ ✐s ✉♣ t♦ ✐♠❛❣✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥✲ t❛t✐♦♥✳ ❲✐t❤♦✉t ❢✉rt❤❡r ❛❞♦✱ ❍❡r❡ ❛r❡ s♦♠❡ ❜❛s✐❝s r✉❧❡s t♦ ❧✐✈❡ ❜②✿ • ❖✈❡r❝♦♦❦✐♥❣ ✐s ♠♦st❧② ❜❛❞✱ ❝❛r❝✐♥♦❣❡♥s ❛✲♣❧❡♥t②✳ ❲❤❡♥ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ♦✈❡r❝♦♦❦❡❞ s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣✱ ❦✐❧❧ t❤❡ st♦✈❡✱ ♣✉t ✐t ♦✉t ✇✐t❤ ✇❛t❡r t♦ ❦✐❧❧ t❤❡ s♠❡❧❧ ❛♥❞ t❤r♦✇ ❛✇❛② ✇❤❛t❡✈❡r ②♦✉ s❝r❡✇❡❞ ✉♣✳ ■❢ ✐t ✐s ❛ s❧✐❣❤t ❜✉r♥ ♦r ✐❢ ✐t ✐s s✐t✉❛t❡❞ ✐♥ ♦♥❡ ♣❧❛❝❡✱ ✐t ♠❛② ❜❡ s❛❧✈❛❣❡❛❜❧❡✱ ❝✉t t❤❡ ❜✉r♥❡❞ ♣❛rt ♦✛✱ ❢❡❡❞ ✐t t♦ ②♦✉r ♥❡✐❣❤❜♦rs ❝❛t✱ ♠♦✈❡ t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦ ♦♥✳ • ❯♥❞❡r❝♦♦❦✐♥❣ ✐s ♠♦st❧② ❜❛❞✱ ✐t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❦✐❧❧ ❛❧❧ t❤❡ ❜❛❝t❡r✐❛ ♣r♦♣❡r❧② ❛♥❞ t❤❡② ❝❛♥ r❡❣r♦✉♣ ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ s❤✐t ❝❤♦❝♦❧❛t❡ r❛✐♥✳ P❧✉s ✉♥❞❡r❝♦♦❦❡❞ ❢♦♦❞ ✐s ♥♦t ❤❡❛t❡❞ ♣r♦♣❡r❧② ❛♥❞✴♦r t❛st❡ ❧✐❦❡ s❤✐t✳ ❯♥❞❡r❝♦♦❦✐♥❣ ♠❡❛t ✐s ♦❜✈✐♦✉s❧② ♠♦❛r ❞❛♥❣❡r♦✉s✳ • ❈❡rt❛✐♥ ❢♦♦❞s✱ s✉❝❤ ❛s st❡❛❦s✱ ❛r❡ ♦❢t❡♥ ♠✉❝❤ ❜❡tt❡r t❛st✐♥❣ ✐❢ ♥♦t ❝♦♦❦❡❞ ❡♥t✐r❡❧② t❤r♦✉❣❤✳ ■♥ r❡st❛✉r❛♥ts✱ ♠♦st ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ♦r❞❡r t❤❡✐r st❡❛❦ ♠❡❞✐✉♠ ♦r ♠❡❞✐✉♠✲r❛r❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬✈❡ ❤❡❛t❡❞ ②♦✉r ♣❛♥ ❝♦rr❡❝t❧②✱ ✐t s❤♦✉❧❞ ♦♥❧② t❛❦❡ ✸✽ s❡❝♦♥❞s ♦♥ ♦♥❡ s✐❞❡ ❛♥❞ ✸✻ ♦♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ✐t ♠❡❞✐✉♠✲r❛r❡✳ ❇❡ ❝❛r❡❢✉❧ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t ❦♥♦✇ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ♠❡❛t ♦r ♥♦t✳ ❙❡❡ ❛❜♦✈❡✳ • ❈❧❡❛♥✉♣s ❛r❡ ♥♦t ❜❡st ❧❡❢t ✉♥t✐❧ ❧❛st✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡♥✬t ❤❛❞ t❤❡ ♣❧❡❛s✉r❡ ♦❢ ✜♥❞✐♥❣ ❛ ❜♦✇❧ ♦❢ ❝♦r♥ ✢❛❦❡s t❤❛t ❤❛s♥✬t ❜❡❡♥ t♦✉❝❤❡❞ ❢♦r ✇❡❡❦s✱ ❛♥❞ s✉❜s❡q✉❡♥t❧②✱ ❜r❡❛❦✐♥❣ ❜♦t❤ ②♦✉r ❛r♠s tr②✐♥❣ t♦ s❝r❛♣❡ t❤❛t s❤✐t ♦✛ ❛♥❞ ❡✈❡♥t✉❛❧❧② ♣❛ss✐♥❣ ♦✉t ❞✉❡ t♦ t♦①✐❝ ❢✉♠❡s✱ ■ s✉❣❣❡st ②♦✉ ❦❡❡♣ ✐t t❤❛t ✇❛② ❜② ❝❧❡❛♥✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦ ✉♣✳ ■t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ❤❛✈❡ t♦ ❜❡ s✉r❣✐❝❛❧❧② ❝❧❡❛♥✱ ❥✉st ❝❧❡❛♥ ❡♥♦✉❣❤ ❢♦r ❛ ❤✉♠❛♥ ❜❡✐♥❣ ♥♦t t♦ ❣❡t ❢♦♦❞ ♣♦✐s♦♥✐♥❣ ❢r♦♠ ❥✉st ❡♥t❡r✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❦✐t❝❤❡♥✳ • ●❡t s♦♠❡ s♠❛❧❧ ❝♦♥t❛✐♥❡rs✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ❛r❡ ❣r❡❛t ❢♦r st♦r✐♥❣ ❧❡❢t♦✈❡rs✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ♥❡✈❡r t❤r♦✇ ❛✇❛② ✐❢ t❤❡ ❢♦♦❞ ✇❛s ❡❞✐❜❧❡ t♦ ❜❡❣✐♥ ✇✐t❤✳ ❑❡❡♣ ✐♥ ♠✐♥❞ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ✜rst ❝♦♦❦❡❞ ✐t✱ t❤♦✉❣❤✱ ❛s ❢♦♦❞ ❞♦❡s ❡✈❡♥t✉❛❧❧② ❣♦ ❜❛❞ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ❤♦✇ ✇❡❧❧ ②♦✉ s❡❛❧ ✐t✳ • ❚❛❦❡ ❣♦♦❞ ❝❛r❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ ❝♦♦❦✇❛r❡✳ ■ ❝❛♥✬t str❡ss t❤✐s ❡♥♦✉❣❤✱ ❝♦♦❦✇❛r❡ ✐s ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡✱ ②♦✉ ✇♦✉❧❞ ❦♥♦✇ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❡♥t ❛♥❞ ❜♦✉❣❤t s♦♠❡ ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ st❡❛❧✐♥❣ ❢r♦♠ ②♦✉r ♣❛r❡♥ts✳ ❲❛s❤ r❡❣✉❧❛r❧②✱ ❇❖❚❍ ❙■❉❊❙✱ st♦r❡ t❤❡♠ ✐♥ ❛ ✇❛② t❤❛t ✐❢ t❤❡② ✇♦♥t ❜❡ ❞❡♥t❡❞ ♦r ♠✐ss❤❛♣❡♥✱ t❛❦❡ ❡①tr❛ ❝❛r❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧✐❞s s✐♥❝❡ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❞❡♥t t❤❡ ❧✐❞s✱ ✐ts ♣r❛❝t✐❝❛❧❧② ✐♠♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ t♦ ♣✉t ❜❛❝❦ ♦♥ t❤❡ ♣♦t ♦r ♣❛♥✱ t❤✐s ✐s t❤❡ ♠♦st ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t ♦♥❡✿ ◆❊❱❊❘ t♦✉❝❤ ♥♦♥st✐❝❦ ❝♦♦❦✇❛r❡ ✇✐t❤ ♠❡t❛❧ ♦❜❥❡❝ts✳ ❚❤✐s ✇✐❧❧ ❞❡❢❡❛t t❤❡ ♣✉r♣♦s❡ ♦❢ ♥♦♥st✐❝❦ ❝♦♦❦✇❛r❡✳ ✭■❢ ✐t ✐s ♥♦♥✲st✐❝❦ ❜② ✇❛② ♦❢ ❚❡✢♦♥✱ t❤❡ ♠❡t❛❧ ♦❜❥❡❝t ✇✐❧❧ s❝r❛t❝❤ t❤❡ ❚❡✢♦♥ ❝♦❛t✐♥❣✳✮ ✾✳✸ ❖❝❝❛s✐♦♥s ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ ▼❯❙❚ ❝♦♦❦ ▲✐❦❡ ✐t ♦r ♥♦t✱ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❝❡rt❛✐♥ ♦❝❝❛s✐♦♥s ✇❤❡r❡ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥✬t ❥✉st ♦r❞❡r ❈❤✐♥❡s❡ ♦r ❣♦❞ ❢♦r❜✐❞ ✐t✱ ♣✐③③❛✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡✿ • ❚❤❛♥❦s❣✐✈✐♥❣ ✭❋♦r t❤❡ ❆♠❡r✐❦❦❦❛♥s✮✿ ❨♦✉✬❧❧ ❜❡ ❡①♣❡❝t❡❞ t♦ ♣r❡♣❛r❡ ❛ t✉r❦❡②✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡s ❝♦♦❦✐♥❣✱ ❜❛st✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ st✉✣♥❣✱ ♣r♦❜❛❜❧② ♥♦t ✐♥ t❤❛t ♦r❞❡r✳ ▼❛② ❣♦❞ ❤❛✈❡ ♠❡r❝② ♦♥ ②♦✉r s♦✉❧ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❢❛✐❧ t♦ ❝❛r✈❡ ✐t t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ✇❛② ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣r❡s❡♥❝❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❣✉❡sts✳ • ❈❤r✐st♠❛s✿ ❱❛r✐❡s ❢r♦♠ ♣❧❛❝❡ t♦ ♣❧❛❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❢r♦♠ ♣✐❣ t♦ ❧❛♠❜ t♦ q✉❛✐❧✳ P✉tt✐♥❣ s♦♠❡ ❡✛♦rt ✐♥t♦ ♠❛tt❡rs ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉r ❛❝t✉❛❧❧② s❡r✈✐♥❣✳ • ❙♣♦✉s❡s✴●✐r❧❢r✐❡♥❞✬s ❜✐rt❤❞❛②✿ ❥✉st ❞♦ ✐t✱ ❛❝t✉❛❧❧②✱ ❥✉st t❤❡ ❢❛❝t t❤❛t ②♦✉ r❡♠❡♠❜❡r❡❞ t❤❡✐r ❜✐rt❤❞❛② ♣✉ts ②♦✉ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ s❛❢❡ ③♦♥❡✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ❢♦♦❞ ❢♦r t❤❡♠ ✐s ❥✉st ❣♦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❡①tr❛ ♠✐❧❡✳ • ❆♥♥✐✈❡rs❛r②✿ ❞♦ ✐t ✐❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❣❡t ❧❛✐❞✳ ✹✹ ✾✳✹ ❙❡tt✐♥❣ ❛ t❛❜❧❡ ❆♥②♦♥❡ ✇❤♦✬s ❜❡❡♥ ✐♥ ❛♥ ❡✈❡♥ ♠✐❧❞❧② ❢❛♥❝② r❡st❛✉r❛♥t ❝❛♥ t❡❧❧ ②♦✉ t❤❛t t❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ ❝❡rt❛✐♥ ✇❛② t♦ s❡t ❛ t❛❜❧❡✳ ❉✉♠♣✐♥❣ ❦♥✐✈❡s ❛♥❞ ❢♦r❦s ✐♥ t❤❡ ♠✐❞❞❧❡ ❛♥❞ ❜❧✐♥❞✐♥❣ ❥❛❜❜✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ❤❛♥❞ ✐♥t♦ t❤❡ ♣✐❧❡ ❤♦♣✐♥❣ t♦ ♣✐❝❦ ✉♣ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ✉t❡♥s✐❧s ✐s ◆❖❚ ❣♦✐♥❣ t♦ ✐♠♣r❡ss t❤❡ ♣❛r❡♥ts✳ ❚❤❡ ❢❛❝t t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❦♥♦✇ ❤♦✇ t♦ s❡t ❛ t❛❜❧❡ ❛❧s♦ s❛②s s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t ②♦✉rs❡❧❢✱ ♠❛✐♥❧② t❤❛t ②♦✉✬r❡ ♥♦t ❛ s♦rr② ✇❛st❡ ♦❢ t❤♦✉s❛♥❞s ♦❢ ②❡❛rs ♦❢ ❤✉♠❛♥ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥✳ ❇❛❝❦ t♦ t❤❡ ♣♦✐♥t✿ P❧❛t❡s ❣♦ ✐♥ ❢r♦♥t ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝❤❛✐r ✭❞✉❤✮✱ ❢♦r❦s t♦ t❤❡ ❧❡❢t✱ ❦♥✐✈❡s t♦ t❤❡ r✐❣❤t ❛♥❞ s♣♦♦♥s ❛❜♦✈❡ t❤❡ ♣❧❛t❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ♠♦r❡ t❤❛♥ ♦♥❡ ♣❛✐r ♦❢ ❦♥✐✈❡s ♦r ❢♦r❦s ♦♥ t❤❡ t❛❜❧❡ ❛t t❤❡ s❛♠❡ t✐♠❡ ❢♦r ❡❛❝❤ ❣✉❡st✱ t❤❡② ❛r❡ t♦ ❜❡ ❛rr❛♥❣❡❞ ❜② s✐③❡✱ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❧❛r❣❡st ❦♥✐❢❡ ♦r ❢♦r❦ ♦r s♣♦♦♥ ❜❡✐♥❣ ❝❧♦s❡st t♦ t❤❡ ♣❧❛t❡ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ s♠❛❧❧❡st t❤❡ ❢❛rt❤❡st✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛♥② s❦✐❧❧ ❢♦❧❞✐♥❣ ♥❛♣❦✐♥s✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❛♥ ❡ss❡♥t✐❛❧❧② ❢❛❣❣✐s❤ s❦✐❧❧✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ❞❡❝♦r❛t❡ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡♠✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ❞♦♥✬t✱ ❝♦♥❣r❛t✉❧❛t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ②♦✉r ❤❡t❡r♦s❡①✉❛❧✐t② ❛♥❞ ❥✉st ♣✉t ♦♥❡ ♦♥ ❡✈❡r② ❞✐s❤✳ ❆❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❡❧②✱ ❥✉st ❢♦❧❞ t❤❡♠ ✐♥t♦ ❛ r❡❝t❛♥❣❧❡ ❛♥❞ ♣❧❛❝❡ ✉♥❞❡r t❤❡ ❧❛r❣❡st ❢♦r❦✳ ✾✳✺ ❲✐♥❡✱ s❡r✈✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ t❛st✐♥❣ t❤❡r❡♦❢ P❛✐r✐♥❣ ❢♦♦❞ ✇✐t❤ ✇✐♥❡s ♦r ❧✐q✉♦rs ✐s ❛♥ ❛rt ♦❢ ✐ts❡❧❢✱ ♣✐❝❦✐♥❣ ❛ ❣♦♦❞ ❢♦♦❞ ❛♥❞ ✇✐♥❡ ♣❛✐r ❢♦r ❛ ❞✐♥♥❡r ♣❛rt② ♦r ❞✐♥♥❡r ✇✐t❤ ②♦✉r ❣✐r❧❢r✐❡♥❞ ✇✐❧❧ ✐♠♣r❡ss ②♦✉r ❣✉❡st✭s✮ ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❛♣♣❡❛r ♠♦❛r s♦♣❤✐st✐❝❛t❡❞✳ ❋♦♦❞ ❛♥❞ ✇✐♥❡ ❤❛✈❡ ❞✐st✐♥❝t t❛st❡ ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ♦✇♥✱ ②♦✉r ❣♦❛❧ ✐s t♦ ✜♥❞ ❛ ♣❛✐r ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡ t❛st❡s ❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t ❡❛❝❤ ♦t❤❡r✱ ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ ♦✈❡rs❤❛❞♦✇✐♥❣✳ ❊①❛♠♣❧❡✿ ❛♥ ❛❣❡❞ r❡❞ ✇✐♥❡ ♣❛✐r❡❞ ✇✐t❤ st❡❛♠❡❞ ❝r❛❜ ❧❡❣s✱ ❜❛❞ ♣❛✐r✳ ❆ q✉✐❝❦ ✇♦r❞ ❛❜♦✉t ✇✐♥❡s ❇✉②✐♥❣ ❛♥ ❡①♣❡♥s✐✈❡ ❜♦tt❧❡ ♦❢ ✇✐♥❡ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❦♥♦✇✐♥❣ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❛❜♦✉t ✇✐♥❡s ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ✐s ❛ ✇❛st❡ ♦❢ ♠♦♥❡② ❜✉t ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❧✐❦❡ ❛ ♥♦♦❜ ✐♥ ❢r♦♥t ♦❢ ♦t❤❡rs✳ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ❣♦♦❞ ✇✐♥❡s ❛t ❛❧❧ ♣r✐❝❡ r❛♥❣❡s✱ ✐♥ ❢❛❝t ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❧♦♦❦ ❤❛r❞ ❡♥♦✉❣❤✱ ②♦✉ ❝❛♥ ✜♥❞ ❛ ✈❡r② t❛st② ✇✐♥❡ ❢♦r ❛❜♦✉t ✷ ❞♦❧❧❛rs✱ t❤❛ts ❛❧♠♦st ❝❤❡❛♣❡r t❤❛♥ ❜♦tt❧❡❞ ✇❛t❡r✳ ❚❤❡ ♦♥❧② ✇❛② t♦ r❡♠❡❞② t❤✐s ✐s t♦ r❡❛❞ ❛ ❜♦♦❦ ♦r t✇♦ t✉t♦r✐❛❧s r❡❣❛r❞✐♥❣ ✇✐♥❡s ✭t❤❡s❡ ✇✐❧❧ ✐♥tr♦❞✉❝❡ ②♦✉ t♦ ♣r♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤❛t r❡❣✐♦♥ ♣r♦❞✉❝❡s ✇❤❛t✱ ✇❤❛t t❛st❡ ❧✐❦❡ ✇❤❛t✱ ❡t❝✳ r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞❡❞✿ t❤❡ ✇✐♥❡ ❜✐❜❧❡✱ ❜② s♦♠❡ ❣✉②✱ ✇✐❧❧ ♣♦❛st ❧❛t❡r✮ ❛❢t❡r ✐♥❞✉❧❣✐♥❣ ✐♥ r❡❛❞✐♥❣ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧✱ ❢✉❝❦❦✐♥ tr✐❛❧ ❛♥❞ ❡rr♦r✳ ❣❡t s♦♠❡ ✇✐♥❡✱ ♠❛❦❡ s♦♠❡ ❢♦♦❞✱ tr② ✐t✳ ❇❡❧♦✇ ❛r❡ s♦♠❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ ❣✉✐❞❡ ❧✐♥❡s ❛♥❞ ❡①❛♠♣❧❡s✳ ❘✉❧❡ ♦❢ ❚❤✉♠❜✿ ❘❡❞ ♠❡❛ts ❣♦ ✇✐t❤ r❡❞ ✇✐♥❡s✱ ✇❤✐t❡ ♠❡❛ts ❣♦ ✇✐t❤ ✇❤✐t❡ ✇✐♥❡s✱ r❡❞ s❛✉❝❡ ❣♦❡s ✇✐t❤ r❡❞ ✇✐♥❡s✱ ✇❤✐t❡ s❛✉❝❡ ❣♦❡s ✇✐t❤ ✇❤✐t❡ ✇✐♥❡s✳ ❚❤✐s r✉❧❡ ✐s ❛❜s♦❧✉t❡❧② ❣♦❧❞❡♥✱ ✐♥ t❤❡ s❡♥s❡ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❝❛♥✬t ②✐❡❧❞ ❛ ❜❛❞ ♣❛✐r ❢♦❧❧♦✇✐♥❣ t❤❡ r✉❧❡✱ ❜✉t ❜r❡❛❦✐♥❣ ✐t ✇✐s❡❧② ❝❛♥ ②✐❡❧❞ ♣❛✐rs t❤❛t ❛r❡ ✉♥❜❡❧✐❡✈❛❜❧② ❣♦♦❞✳ P❛✐rs t❤❛t ❛r❡ ✐♥st❛♥t ❡♣✐❝ ✇✐♥s✿ • ❙t❡❛❦✿ ❈❛❜❡r♥❡t s❛✉✈✐❣♥♦♥✱ ♠❡r❧♦t✱ ❙❤✐r❛③✱ ❝❤✐❛♥t✐ ✭s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ❤❡❛✈② ❛♥❞ r❡❞✮ • P♦r❦ ❝❤♦♣s✿ ♣✐♥♦t ♥♦✐r✱ ❙❤✐r❛③✱ ②♦✉♥❣ ❢r✉✐t② ❈❛❜❡r♥❡t ♦r ♠❡r❧♦t ❣♦❡s ✈❡r② ✇❡❧❧ ✇✐t❤ ♣♦r❦ ❝❤♦♣s✱ ❛ ❢❡✇ ❛❣❡❞ ✇❤✐t❡ ✇✐♥❡s ♠✐❣❤t ✇♦r❦✱ ❞❡♣❡♥❞✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❤♦✇ t❤❡ ♣♦r❦ ❝❤♦♣s ❛r❡ ♣r❡♣❛r❡❞✱ ✭tr② ✐t ♦✉t✮ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ t❤❛t ♠✐❣❤t ✇♦r❦ ✇✐t❤ st❡❛❦ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❝❛✉t✐♦♥ ✇❤❡♥ ✐t ❝♦♠❡s t♦ ♣♦r❦✱ s✐♥❝❡ ♣♦r❦ ✐s ❛ ❧✐❣❤t❡r ♠❡❛t t❤❛♥ ❜❡❡❢✳ • ❙♣❛❣❤❡tt✐ ✇✐t❤ t♦♠❛t♦ s❛✉❝❡✿ r❡❞✱ r❡❞✱ r❡❞✳ ❛♥②t❤✐♥❣ r❡❞✳ t❤♦✉❣❤ ✐❢ ✐t ✐s ♥♦t ❡q✉✐♣♣❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ♠❡❛t✲❛❣❡ ✭t❤❡ ♣✉ss② s♣❛❣❤❡tt✐✮✱ ❧✐❣❤t❡♥ ✉♣ ♦♥ t❤❡ ✇✐♥❡✱ ❣♦ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ②♦✉♥❣ ❢r✉✐t② ❝❛❜❡r♥❡t ♦r ♣✐♥♦t • ❆♥②t❤✐♥❣ ❆❧❢r❡❞♦ ♦r ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❧✐❣❤t ✇❤✐t❡ s❛✉❝❡✿ ❝❤❛r❞♦♥♥❛②✱ ♣✐♥♦t ❣r✐❣✐♦✱ ❘✐❡s❧✐♥❣ ✭Pr♦t✐♣✿ ❛♥② ✇❤✐t❡ ✇✐♥❡ t❤❛t ❝♦♠❡s ♦✉t ♦❢ ●❡r♠❛♥② ✐s ❛♥ ❡♣✐❝ ✇✐♥ ✇❤❡♥ t❛❦❡♥ ✇✐t❤ ❆❧❢r❡❞♦ s❛✉❝❡✮ • ❙❡❛❢♦♦❞ ✭✐♥ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✮✿ ❛♥② ✇❤✐t❡ ✇✐♥❡ ✇✐❧❧ ❞♦✱ ❛✈♦✐❞ ❤❡❛✈✐❧② ❛❣❡❞ ❝❤❛r❞♦♥♥❛②s • P✐③③❛✿ ❜❡❡r✳ ❧♦ts ♦❢ ✐t✳ ❣❜✷✴t❤❡ ❚❱ • ▼❛❝ ❛♥❞ ❝❤❡❡s❡✿ ❧✐st❡r✐♥❡✳ ✇❤❛t ❛r❡ ②♦✉✱ ✉♥❞❡r❛❣❡ ❇✫❄ ●❚❋❖✳ ✹✺ ✶✵ ❉r✐♥❦✐♥❣ ❉❡s♣✐t❡ ✇❤❛t ②♦✉ ♠❛② t❤✐♥❦✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s s♦♠❡ ♠❡t❤♦❞ ❜❡❤✐♥❞ t❤❡ ♠❛❞♥❡ss ♦❢ ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣✳ ❆❢t❡r ❛❧❧✱ ❤✉♠❛♥s ❤❛✈❡ ❜❡❡♥ ❞♦✐♥❣ ✐t ❡✈❡r s✐♥❝❡ ✇✐♥❡ ✇❛s ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r❡❞ ✐♥ ❛♥❝✐❡♥t t✐♠❡s✳ ❨♦✉r ♣❛r❡♥ts ♠❛② ❤❛✈❡ ❣✐✈❡♥ ②♦✉ t❤❡ ❤✉❣❡ ❞r✉❣s ❛♥❞ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ t❛❧❦✱ ❜✉t ✐t r❡❛❧❧② ✐s ♥♦ ❜✐❣ ❞❡❛❧ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡r s❝❤❡♠❡ ♦❢ t❤✐♥❣s✱ ②♦✉r ♣❛r❡♥ts ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❛ ❞♦✉❜t ❤❛s ❣♦tt❡♥ s❤✐t❢❛❝❡❞ t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s✱ ❛♥❞ ♥♦✇ t❤❡② ❛r❡ ♣❛ss✐♥❣ t❤❡ t♦r❝❤ ♦♥ t♦ ②♦✉✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r ✲ ♥♦t ❛❧❧ ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣ ♠❡❛♥s ❣❡tt✐♥❣ s❤✐t❢❛❝❡ ❛♥❞ ♣♦✇❡rs♣❡✇✐♥❣ ♦♥ ②♦✉r ❜❡st ❢r✐❡♥❞s ❝♦✉❝❤ ❛♥❞ ❝❛r♣❡t✳ ❨♦✉✱ ♠② ❞❡❛r ❆♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ❢r✐❡♥❞✱ ♠✉st ❧❡❛r♥ t❤❡ ❡t✐q✉❡tt❡ ♦❢ ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣✳ Pr♦♦❢ ❖❢ ❲❤❛t❄ ❆❧❝♦❤♦❧ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ♠❡❛s✉r❡❞ ✐♥ ❡✐t❤❡r Pr♦♦❢✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❤♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ❊t❤❛♥♦❧ ✐s ✐♥ t❤❡ ❜♦tt❧❡✱ ♦r ❜② ❆❇❱✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❆❧❝♦❤♦❧ ❇② ❱♦❧✉♠❡✳ Pr♦♦❢=❆❇❱·2✳ ❆❇❱=Pr♦♦❢/2✳ ❊❛s② ♣❡❛s②✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s♥✬t ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❦♥♦✇ st✉✛✱ ❜✉t ✐t✬s ❣♦♦❞ t♦ ❦❡❡♣ ❜❡❤✐♥❞ t❤❡ ❡❛r✳ ✶✵✳✶ ❇✐♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ❋❛❝t♦rs ❋✐rst ✇❡ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❞❡✜♥❡ ❛ ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞ ❞r✐♥❦✳ ❆ ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞ ❞r✐♥❦ ✐s ❞❡✜♥❡❞ ❛s ❛♥② ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ❧✐q✉✐❞ ✇✐t❤ ❛❜♦✉t ✶✹ ❣r❛♠s ♦❢ ♣✉r❡ ❡t❤❛♥♦❧✱ t❤✐s tr❛♥s❧❛t❡s t♦ ❡✐t❤❡r ♦♥❡ ❜❡❡r✱ ♦♥❡ s❤♦t ♦❢ ❤❛r❞ ❧✐q✉♦r✱ ♦r ♦♥❡ ❣❧❛ss ♦❢ ✇✐♥❡✳ ❨♦✉r ❜♦❞② t❛❦❡s ❛❜♦✉t ❛♥ ❤♦✉r t♦ ❞✐❣❡st ♦♥❡ st❛♥❞❛r❞ ❞r✐♥❦✳ ❊t❤❛♥♦❧ ✐s ❛♥ ✐♥t♦①✐❝❛♥t✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♠❡❛♥s ❝♦♥s✉♠♣t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❡t❤❛♥♦❧ ✇✐❧❧ ✐♠♣❛✐r ②♦✉r ♠♦t♦r s❦✐❧❧s✱ ❥✉❞❣♠❡♥t ❛♥❞ ◆❊❱❊❘ ❉❘■◆❑ ❆◆❉ ❉❘■❱❊✱ ❉❖■◆● ❙❖ ❲■▲▲ ●❊❚ ❨❖❯ ❋❯❈❑❊❉✶✺ ✱ ❇✫ ❆◆❉ ❱✫✱ ❆❙ ❲❊▲▲ ❆❙ P❯❚❚■◆● ❨❖❯❘❙❊▲❋ ❆◆❉ ❖❚❍❊❘❙ ■◆ ▼❖❘❚❆▲ ❉❆◆●❊❘✳ ❝♦❣♥✐t✐♦♥✱ ✭r❡❛❞✿ s❤✐t❢❛❝❡❞✮ ❊t❤❛♥♦❧ ✐s ♠♦st❧② ❛❜s♦r❜❡❞ ❛♥❞ ❜r♦❦❡♥ ❞♦✇♥ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧♦✇❡r ✐♥t❡st✐♥❡s✱ t❤♦✉❣❤ tr❛❝❡s ♦❢ ✐t ♠❛②❜❡ ❛❜s♦r❜❡❞ ✐t ✐♥ ②♦✉r st♦♠❛❝❤ ❛♥❞ ❧❛r❣❡ ✐♥t❡st✐♥❡s✱ ❛♥❞ ✐❢ ②♦✉ ❛r❡ r❡❛❧❧② ❢✉❝❦✐♥❣ st✉♣✐❞✱ t❤❡ ❧✉♥❣s✳ ■t ✐s ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧❧② ❛❝t✐♥❣ ❞r✉❣✱ t♦❧❡r❛♥❝❡ t♦ ✐t ✈❛r✐❡s ❢r♦♠ ♣❡rs♦♥ t♦ ♣❡rs♦♥✱ t❤♦✉❣❤ t❤❛t ❞♦❡s♥✬t ♠❛tt❡r t♦ ❧❛✇ ❡♥❢♦r❝❡♠❡♥t✱ ✐❢ t❤❡② ✜♥❞ ✐t ✐♥ ②♦✉r s②st❡♠✱ ②♦✉✬r❡ ❢✉❝❦❡❞ ♥♦ ♠❛tt❡r ❤♦✇ s♦❜❡r ②♦✉ ❢❡❡❧✳ ◆♦✇ t❤❛t ✇❡ ❛r❡ ❞♦♥❡ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❞✐s❝❧❛✐♠❡r st✉✛ ✲ ❍♦✇ ▼✉❝❤ ■s ❚♦♦ ▼✉❝❤❄ ❍♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥ ❝❛♥ ❞r✐♥❦ ❜❡❢♦r❡ t❤❡② st❛rt ❧❛✉♥❝❤✐♥❣ ❝❤✉♥❦s ❞❡♣❡♥❞s ♦♥ ❛ ❢❡✇ ❢❛❝t♦rs✳ ❖♥❡✱ ✐s ❜♦❞② ♠❛ss✳ ❆ s❦✐♥♥② ❣✉② ✇✐❧❧ ❣❡t ❞r✉♥❦ ♦♥ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ❜♦♦③❡ ❛s ❢❛t ❣✉② ▼❯❈❍ ❢❛st❡r✳ ■♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣❧② ❡♥♦✉❣❤✱ t❤❡ ♠✉s❝❧❡ ❧❛❞❡♥ ❥♦❝❦ ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❝❧❛ss ✇✐❧❧ ❤♦❧❞ ♦✉t ❧♦♥❣❡r t❤❛♥ t❤❡ ❢❛t t✉❜ ♦❢ ❧❛r❞ t❤❛t ✐s ②♦✉r t❡❛♠ ♠❛s❝♦t✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ❜♦❞② ❢❛t ♣❡r❝❡♥t❛❣❡ ✐s ❛❧s♦ ❛ ❢❛❝t♦r✳ ❚❤❡ ❧❡ss ❢❛t ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡✱ t❤❡ ❧♦♥❣❡r ✐t✬❧❧ t❛❦❡ ❢♦r ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ t♦ t❛❦❡ ❡✛❡❝t✳ ●❡♥❡t✐❝s ❛❧s♦ ❝♦♠❡ ✐♥t♦ ♣❧❛②✱ ❜✉t t❤❛t✬s ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛t❡❞ s❤✐t✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛❧❧②✱ ❛s✐❛♥s ❧❛❝❦ s♦♠❡ ♣r♦t❡✐♥ ♦r ❣❡♥❡ ♦r ✇❤❛t❡✈❡r t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝❛✉s❡s t❤❡♠ t♦ ❣❡t ❤②♣❡r✲❢✉❝❦❡❞ ✉♣ ♦♥ r❡❧❛t✐✈❡❧② ♠✐♥✉s❝✉❧❡ ❛♠♦✉♥ts ♦❢ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧✳ ❆❧s♦✱ t❤❡ st❡r❡♦t②♣✐❝❛❧ ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣ r❛❝❡s ✭■r✐s❤✱ P♦❧✐s❤✱ ❘✉ss✐❛♥ ❡t❝✳✮ ❝❛♥ ❡①❤✐❜✐t ❤✐❣❤❡r ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ t♦❧❡r❛♥❝❡ t❤❛♥ ♠♦st✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤✐s ✐s ❤❛r❞❧② ❛ ❤✉❣❡ ❢❛❝t♦r✳ ❆ ❝♦♠♠♦♥ ♠✐s❝♦♥❝❡♣t✐♦♥ ✐s t❤❛t ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣ ♠♦❛r ✇✐❧❧ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ②♦✉r t♦❧❡r❛♥❝❡✱ t❤✐s ✐s ❧❛r❣❡❧② ✉♥tr✉❡ ♦♥❝❡ ❛❞✉❧t❤♦♦❞ ✐s r❡❛❝❤❡❞✱ t❤♦✉❣❤ ♣s②❝❤♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ❢❛❝t♦rs ✇✐❧❧ ❝♦♠❡ ✐♥t♦ ♣❧❛② ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡ ②♦✉ t❤✐♥❦ t❤❛t ②♦✉ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ ❤✐❣❤❡r t♦❧❡r❛♥❝❡✱ ❜✉t t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦ ❜✐♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ♣r♦♦❢✳ ❆ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ r✉❧❡ ♦❢ t❤✉♠❜ ✐s t♦ st♦♣ ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣ ✇❤❡♥ ②♦✉ st❛rt ❢❛❧❧✐♥❣ ♦✛ t❤❡ ✢♦♦r✳ ■❢ ②♦✉ ✇❛♥t t♦ ❛✈♦✐❞ ❜❧♦✇✐♥❣ ❝❤✉♥❦s✱ t❤❛t ✐s✳ ❇❆❈ r❡❝♦r❞ ❤♦❧❞❡r ❇❆❈ ✭❇❧♦♦❞ ❆❧❝♦❤♦❧ ❈♦♥t❡♥t✮ ❧❡✈❡❧ r❡❝♦r❞ ❤♦❧❞❡r ✐s ❛ ♣♦❧❡ ✭❛ P♦❧✐s❤ ♣❡rs♦♥✮✳ ❚❛❞❡✉s③ ❙✳ ✐♥ ✶✾✾✺ ✇❛s ❞r✐✈✐♥❣ ❛ ❝❛r ✉♥❞❡r t❤❡ ✐♥❢✉❛❧♥❝❡ ♦❢ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ ❛♥❞ ❝❛✉s❡❞ ❛♥ ❛❝❝✐❞❡♥t ♥❡❛r ❲r♦❝❧❛✇✳ ❚❤❡② t❡st❡❞ ❤✐s ❜❧♦♦❞ ❢♦r ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ ❛♥❞ t❤❡♥ r❡t❡st❡❞ ✐t ✹ ♠♦r❡ t✐♠❡s ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡② ❝♦✉❧❞♥✬t ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ t❤❡ r❡s✉❧t ❜✉t ❛❧❧ t❤❡ r❡s✉❧ts ✇❡r❡ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ✲ ✶✹✱✽ ♣❡r♠✐❧❡✳ ❚❤❡ ♠❛♥ ❞✐❡❞ ❛ ❞♦③❡♥ ❞❛②s ❧❛t❡r ❢r♦♠ ✐♥❥✉r✐❡s s✉✛❡r❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝r❛s❤ ♥♦t ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ ❞♦s❛❣❡✳ ■❢ ②♦✉✬r❡ ✇♦♥❞❡r✐♥❣ ✇❤❛t✬s t❤❡ ♠♦rt❛❧ ❞♦s❛❣❡ ♦❢ ❛❧❝♦❤♦❧ ❝♦♥t❡♥t ✐♥ ②♦✉r ❜❧♦♦❞ ✐t✬s ✉s❛❧❧② q✉♦t❡❞ t♦ ❜❡ ✹ ♦r ✺ ♣❡r♠✐❧❡✳ ❉♦❡s ♥♦t ❛♣♣❧② t♦ ♣♦❧❡s ❛♥❞ r✉s❦✐❡s✳ ✶✵✳✷ ❉❯❉❊✱ ▲❊❚❙ ●❊❚ ❲❆❙❚❊❉✦✶✶ ◆♦✳ ❖♥❧② t✇❡❡♥s ❞r✐♥❦ t♦ ❣❡t ❲❆❙❚❊❉✦✦✶✶✳ ❍❛✈❡ s♦♠❡ r❡s♣❡❝t ❛♥❞ ❣r♦✇ t❤❡ ❢✉❝❦ ✉♣✳ ❚❤❛t ✐s♥✬t t♦ s❛② t❤❛t ❣❡tt✐♥❣ ✇❛st❡❞ ✐s s♦♠❡t❤✐♥❣ ②♦✉ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❛✈♦✐❞✳ ◗✉✐t❡ t❤❡ ❝♦♥tr❛r②✱ ✐t ✐s ❛♥ ❛♥ ❡①♣❡r✐❡♥❝❡ t❤❛t ❡✈❡r②♦♥❡ ▼❯❙❚ ❣♦ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ✐♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ❤❛✈❡ ♣r♦♣❡r❧② ❧✐✈❡❞✱ ❜✉t ❧✐❦❡ ♠♦st t❤✐♥❣s✱ ✐t ❤❛s ❛ t✐♠❡ ❛♥❞ ❛ ♣❧❛❝❡✳ ■♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❤❡ s❛❦❡ ♦❢ ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣✱ ❞r✐♥❦ ❢♦r t❤❡ s❛❦❡ ♦❢ ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ♣❡♦♣❧❡✳ ❖❢t❡♥ t❤❡ ❜❡st ❢r✐❡♥❞s ②♦✉✬❧❧ ❡✈❡r ❤❛✈❡ ❛r❡ t❤♦s❡ ✇❤♦ ✶✺ ✐✳❡✳✱ ❇✐❣ ❇✉❜❜❛✬s ❣✐r❧❢r✐❡♥❞ ❢✉❝❦❡❞ ✹✻ ②♦✉ t❤r♦✇ ❜❛❝❦ ❛ ❢❡✇ ❝♦❧❞ ♦♥❡s ✇✐t❤✳ ❇❡ ❛✇❛r❡ t❤❛t ✐❢ ♦♥❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉r ❞r✐♥❦✐♥❣ ❜✉❞❞✐❡s ✐s ❆♥♦♥✱ ❤❡ ❲■▲▲ ❡✈❡♥t✉❛❧❧② ♣r❡ss✉r❡ ②♦✉ ❢♦r ▼✉t✉❛❧ ▼❛st✉r❜❛t✐♦♥ ❛❢t❡r ❤❡✬s ❣♦t ②♦✉ ❞r✉♥❦ ❡♥♦✉❣❤✳ P✐♠♣ s❧❛♣♣✐♥❣ ✐s ❥✉st✐✜❡❞ ❛t t❤✐s ♣♦✐♥t✳ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ t♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧ ❤♦✇ ♠✉❝❤ ②♦✉ ❞r✐♥❦ ✐s ❥✉st ❛s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t ❛s ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ♦✇♥ ❧✐♠✐ts✳ ❲❡ ❛❧❧ ❦♥♦✇ t❤❡ ❣✉② ✇❤♦ ❞❛♥❝❡s ❛r♦✉♥❞ ❛❢t❡r r✐♣♣✐♥❣ s❤✐rt ♦✛ ❛❢t❡r s❤♦t❣✉♥♥✐♥❣ ❛ ❢❡✇ ❜❡❡rs✱ ♦r t❤❡ ❣✐r❧ ✇❤♦ ❣❡ts ✬t♦t❛❧❧② tr❛s❤❡❞✬ ♦✛ ❛ ❝♦✉♣❧❡ ❣❧❛ss❡s ♦❢ ✇✐♥❡✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❜❡ ❧✐❦❡ t❤❡♠✳ P❛rt②✐♥❣ ❋♦r t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ ②♦✉ ✐♥ ❝♦❧❧❡❣❡✱ t❤❡ ❛❜♦✈❡ ✐s ❛ ♠❛❥♦r ❢❛❝t♦r✳ ❊✈❡♥ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤❡st ❝♦❧❧❡❣❡s ✐♥ ❛♥② ❝♦✉♥tr②✱ ♣❛rt②✐♥❣ ✐s ❛ ❜✐❣ ❞❛♠♥ ❞❡❛❧ ❛♥❞ ✇❡✬r❡ t❛❧❦✐♥❣ ✧✇❛❦❡ ✉♣ t❤❡ ♥❡①t ♠♦r♥✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ s♦♠❡ ✉❣❧② ❣❛② ❣✉②✧ ❞❡❛❧✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ✐t✬s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ❤♦✇ t♦ ❤❛♥❞❧❡ ②♦✉r s❤✐t✳ ninety nine.

Rated 4.46 of 5 – based on 32 votes